+ All Watergate Scandal Essays:
- A Brief History of Mcdonald
- The Importance of Numeration and the Application of Counting Throughouth History
- Effects of The Yazoo Land Sale Scandal
- Events Leading Up to the The Sarbanes-Oxley Act
- Tour de France Drug Abuse
- Ways the executive branch of the U.S. goverment, through various laws and acts, gained power over the legislative and judicial brances.
- Morality of the Upper Class in Oscar Wilde's Lady Windermeres Fan
- Kissinger: A Historiography
- Foreign Policy in the Nixon Presidency
- The United States' Outlook on Foreign Policy Affairs
- Assignment # 3 Worldcom Accounting Scandal
- Impeachment of Bill Clinton
- The Personality of Sherlock Holmes
- Waste Management Scandal
- John F. Kennedy
- Corporate Scandals: How Greed Consumed The American Dream
- Executive Privilege
- Lets Keep Personal, Personal: Scandal´s of Bill Clinton and John F. Kennedy
- The Most Important Turning Points in Senator Joe McCarthy's Political Career
- Olympus Corporation Reborn
- Scandal of Chicago White Sox and Cincinnati Reds
- Financial Analysis of Padma Bridge
- BP's Share in the World Energy Market
- Generational Differences Between Baby Boomers and Millennials and the Impacts on Hr
- The United States Government
- Who is Barbra Jordan?
- Sarbanes-Oxley Research Paper
- Political Transitions in America
- Confidence in the Federal Government and Voter Turnout
- A New Great Depression
- Xerox Scandal
- What Were the Effects of the Vietnam War on United States?
- Toyota: Strategic Choices
- Analysis of the Enron/Arthur Anderson Scandal
- Sherlock Holmes: Which TV Show Represents the Really Story?
- Corruption in Politics
- The Corruption Scandal of the European Commission
- iran contra scandal
- Sports Stars: 1919 Black Sox Scandal
- A Scandal in Bohemia
- The United States Law Enforcement and Money Laundering
- Biography of Richard Milhous Nixon
- Bounty Scandal
- Effect of Unethical Behavior
- Democracy According to Mailer
- Electoral College
- Campaign Finance Reform: The History, Present, and Future
- It's Time for a Universal Code of Ethics for Public Relations
- Jfk Conspiracy
- American History: Study Notes
- The Impact Of Ethics On The Enron Corporation
- American History: The Vietnam War and the Civil Rights Movement
- Richard Milhouse Nixon
- Controversy Behind Qatar 2022 Bid
- Corporate Ethical Issues and Ensuing Influence-Case Study of Murdoch's Phone Hacking Scandal
- Catholic Church Sex Abuse Scandal
- Integrity in Leadership
- Case: 9 Enron
- I Love the Movie, Forrest Gump
- Cold War Presidents
- Max Hallman's Traversing Philosophical Boundaries
- The National Address and Being American
- The Iran Hostage Crisis and the United States
- Study Guide for US History
- Richard A. Wasserstrom's Lawyers as Professionals: Some Moral Issues
- The Sixties, by Terry H. Anderson
- Pfizer company
- His 135 Week 9 Final Project
- Penn State Scandal
- President Gerald Ford
- The Petticoat Affair: Manners, Mutiny, And Sex In Andrew Jackson's White House
- Campaign Finance Reform
- The Role of Special Interest Groups in American Politics
- Baudrillard and the Matrix
- Tyco Scandal
- Hillary Rodham vs Michelle Obama
- Auditor’s Role: The Importance to Overcome Ethical Dilemmas
- Richard Nixon: Was He Truly Conservative?
- WorldCom and The Mississippi Scheme Scandals
- Deception, Fraud, and the Collapse of Enron
- The West Point Cheating Scandal
- Social Issues of the Seventies
- Ethics and Corruption in Governments Around the World
- Hilary Clinton's Lifespan and Personality
- The Glory and The Dream
- Analysis Paper
- HIST 1302 FINAL EXAM REVIEW
- American Revolution and Study Guide
The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that happened in the United States between 1972 and 1974. It began with a break-in at the headquarters of Democratic National Committee at the office complex called Watergate – hence the name, in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972.
The burglary and subsequent attempts of the Nixon administration to cover-up its involvement in the affair eventually led to articles of impeachment against President Nixon and ultimately his resignation on August 8, 1974 – the first and only resignation of a U.S. president to date.
The story of Watergate arose from all the economic troubles, assassinations, social unrest of the 1960s and lately the publication of the Pentagon Papers in 1970. When President Nixon was running for the re-election in 1972, the States was embroiled in the lengthy, bloody and unpopular Vietnam War (1955-1975) and deeply divided internally. Under such harsh political climate, a forceful presidential campaign was thought to help the president have an easier election than in 1968. Many “dirty-tricks”, therefore, were employed during his campaign including harassing the opponent and bugging in their office.
Watergate Scandal Summary
The Watergate scandal began in mid-1972 following a break-in at the Watergate Hotel Complex on June 17 of five burglars, one of them was working for President Nixon’s Committee to Re-elect the President (CRP – also known derogatorily as CREEP among Nixon’s political opponents). Both the White House and CRP immediately denied any connection to the event. An elaborate cover-up was already under way.
In October, the FBI discovered that there was a systematic and illegal spying and sabotage and thatthe break-in was just part of a larger campaign conducted on behalf of CRP leaderships against the Democrats. Although those revelations could not prevent Nixon from being re-elected with a landslide victory in November 1972, a political storm was brewing up.
Woodward, Bernstein & “Deep Throat”
Initial investigations of the incident was strongly influenced by the media whose coverage highlighted the connection between the burglary and the CRP. The most notable coverage came from two young Washington Post Reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, together with their secret informant Deep Throat, suggesting that the break-in and subsequent attempts to cover it up had a close connection with the Justice Department, the CIA, the FBI and even the White House.
In the meanwhile, some conspirators cracked . Following some of Nixon’s aides testimony including former White House Counsel John Dean’s, it emerged that Nixon had secretly taped every conversation that took place in the Oval Office. The shocking disclosure sparked a quest for the tapes by both the Senate Watergate Committee and Watergate special prosecutor Archibald Cox.
Saturday Night Massacre
Nixon, however, refused to hand over the tapes, claiming it was president’s “executive privilege” to keep them to himself. When Cox insisted on demanding the tapes, Nixon ordered to have Cox removed, leading to a flurry of high-profile Justice Department resignations in protest over the weekend, which was notoriously known as the Saturday Night Massacre. Eventually, the Nixon administration released some of the tapes under subpoena. One of which contained 18 and 1/2 minutes of silence that could not be explained by the White House.
On March 1 1974, the so-called “Watergate Seven” including former Attorney General John Mitchell and Nixon’s six other top former aides were indicted on diverse charges related to the Watergate affair while Nixon was called “unindicted co-conspirator” by a grand jury.
“Smoking Gun” tape
It was not until July when the Supreme Court unanimously ordered that the tapes must be handed over that Nixon realised he had backed himself into a corner. Nixon voluntarily released the tapes on August 5. One of them would become known as the “Smoking Gun” tape which served as an indisputable evidence that Nixon had took part in the cover-up from the beginning. Facing certain impeachment the Senate , Nixon became the first American President to ever resign on August 8. He was succeeded by Gerald Ford who would later pardon Nixon for all the crimes he “committed or may have committed” while in office.
Effects on the Home Front
The Watergate scandal rocked the States and changed its politics forever. 69 government officials were charged in which 47 were found guilty of criminal offences. The scandal greatly tarnished the public image of legal profession and led to a number of governmental reforms. In 1983, a new system of professional ethics called the Model Rules of Professional Conduct came into use. Public cynicism and distrust of the government which had already started due to the dissatisfaction from the Vietnam War rose even more drammatically. Americans began to question their leadership more than ever before.
The scandal also left a huge impact on the country’s consciousness that many political scandals have been often labelled with the suffix -gate. The phrase ‘follow the money’ has also become a common lexicon in criminal dealings as it would generally lead to the culprit.
& the Vietnam War
Meanwhile, South Vietnam lost its guarantor of the Paris Peace Accords. Nixon’s resignation was such a serious blow for South Vietnamese government who had already endured a 50% aid reduction due to the increasing political difficulties in the U.S. during 1973-1974. The Congress who had forbidden any further U.S. intervention in Indochina in July 1974 continued to reject additional $300 million aid request of President Ford in March 1975 even when South Vietnam was on the verge of collapsing.
Apparently, the Watergate Scandal had indirectly contributed heavily to the rapid collapse of South Vietnam in early 1975 and the eventual fall of the country on April 30.