Assignment 10 1 Gist

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Lesson Plan

Get the GIST: A Summarizing Strategy for Any Content Area


Grades6 – 8
Lesson Plan TypeRecurring Lesson
Estimated Time30 minutes per session
Lesson Author




In this series of lessons, students read newspaper articles obtained from newspaper websites. Students then identify journalism's "5 Ws and 1 H" (who, what, when, where, why, and how) and complete a template with the corresponding information they have found in the article. Finally, students use their notes to write a 20-word summary called a GIST. Once students have mastered writing a GIST using newspaper articles, the strategy is then applied to content area texts to support comprehension and summarizing skills.

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Rhoder, C. (2002). Mindful reading: Strategy training that facilitates transfer. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45(6), 498–512.

  • All students benefit from strategy instruction. Too many strategies taught in a short amount of time do not lead to transfer or independent performance of the strategy because students are not able to practice before applying them to content. Therefore, students should learn one or two strategies to allow for transfer.

  • Students need to learn a reading strategy out of context of the content area in order to effectively assimilate the strategy. Once students no longer need scaffolding using the strategy, application to content area is possible.

  • The model for strategy instruction is–direct instruction, practice using curriculum-free materials, and application to curriculum.

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Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.



Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).



Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.


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Resources & Preparation


  • Content area classroom texts

  • Computers with Internet access

  • Overhead projector (optional)

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1.The FCAT Express: Gist Strategy website provides a description of the GIST strategy. It may be helpful to familiarize yourself with this strategy before beginning the lesson.

2.Preview and obtain a list of Internet addresses for newspaper websites appropriate for your students' needs. You may suggest local newspaper websites combined with some national and international sites. For example, students in the U.S. state of Washington were provided with Internet addresses for HeraldNet, The Seattle Times, Bogota Daily, Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, and Times Online.
[Note: Most newspaper websites include advertisements similar to a printed newspaper. You should screen the online advertisements to be sure they are appropriate for your students.]

3.Familiarize students with how to locate newspaper websites on the Internet and how to use website search tools.

4.Prepare samples of news articles and copies of the blank GIST Template document for use with an overhead projector.

5.The GIST Template may be printed and distributed to students. You may also offer students the option of accessing and filling out the GIST Template online while researching information on the newspaper websites. You will need to bookmark the electronic Gist Template document on the computers students will be using. Skilled users may easily switch between a newspaper webpage and the template.

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Instructional Plan


Students will

  • Learn and practice the gist summarizing strategy

  • Apply the gist strategy to content area-reading assignments

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Session 1: Introduction and Modeling

First, discuss with students what a GIST is and why it is a useful strategy. Often, one or two students will have heard the term before and the class will deduce that it means the process of summarizing information. Next, model the GIST process using a high-interest newspaper article. Stories that have recently been in the news are the most engaging. You may wish to use an overhead projector to allow the whole class to read and discuss sample articles together. Have students read the article along with you, and using the overhead projector, together fill in the "5Ws and H"-who, what, where, when, why, and how-on the GIST Template. Then ask students to try writing their own summaries, or GISTs, while you write your own. Next, share your GIST with the class and ask students to share theirs.

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Session 2: Review and Assessment of Progress

Begin by reviewing what a GIST is and the purpose it serves. Then, provide students with an article and have them read along while it is read aloud. Have students work with partners to fill in the 5Ws and H and write GISTs about the article. While they work, you may wish to display the article using the overhead projector and informally assess student process by walking around the room to observe students and offer assistance. Finally, share your gist and ask students to share what they have written.

[NOTE: If students need additional time to master the concept, repeat Session 2 with a new article before moving on to Session 3.]

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Session 3: Introduction to Computer Research

Introduce students to using computers to access information they will use to complete the GIST Template. Give students a specific website article to begin with so everyone is using the same material. If you choose to have students access and complete the GIST Template on the computer, review the process of how to open the online GIST Template and move between the two website screens. Allow students to familiarize themselves with the activities, and monitor and help them as necessary.

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Session 4: Independent Student Research

Tell students that they are now on their own and that they are to work independently to research information and complete the template. Have each student choose a news article using the list of newspaper websites. Tell students that the article must be at least five paragraphs long and must not be an editorial or opinion piece. Then, allow students to work on their own. Instruct each student to print both the article and the completed GIST Template, staple them together, and turn them in. Assess their work to see if students are ready to move on to applying the strategy to class texts.

[NOTE: If students are not yet ready to move on to the next step, repeat Session 4, helping those that need further instruction. It is very important that this strategy is mastered before it is applied to a content area.]

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Session 5: Application of GIST Strategy to Content Areas

Tell students that they will now apply the GIST strategy to classroom work. First, discuss how the GIST would be most helpful. Write students' suggestions on the board. Then, give students a content area selection to be read. Examples might include a fiction excerpt from a novel or short story or a section from a content area text. One positive aspect of this strategy is that it is applicable to any area. Students may complete the GIST either on the computer or on paper.

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  • Students may also provide responses to the articles to support further learning. For example, they can write about how the article makes them think and feel. Students can also write about possible solutions to a problem or situation that the article may pose.

  • Students may use any of the following website activities to further their knowledge of the subject matter and may research additional resources on their own.

  • ReadWriteThink lesson, "Research Building Blocks: Notes, Quotes, and Fact Fragments": Students can use this lesson to apply and practice finding the 5Ws and H in this fact-finding activity.

  • Students who have mastered the gist technique could begin exploring science- and social studies-related articles and complete gists on those articles. This site also has numerous student-friendly, educational games for students to complete that support middle-level content areas.

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Teacher observation and anecdotal notes:

  • Observe students in class during their research and writing time, and assess students' progress from answers elicited during class sharing and discussions.

  • Assess students' application of the GIST strategy in appropriate situations and for use during content area assignments.

Assessment of written student responses. GISTs are teacher-scored on a 1-4 scale (as per Washington state WASL grading scale):

  • Grade 4: Assigned to a GIST that goes above and beyond giving the reader a clear vision of the article and is written in a higher-level manner

  • Grade 3: Average grade given to a GIST that addresses the 5Ws and H in sentence form and accurately reflects the article read

  • Grade 2: Represents a GIST that either addresses the 5Ws and H or is a semi-accurate summary written in sentence form

  • Grade 1: Representative of not understanding the assignment and using single words rather than complete sentences

Students could assess themselves and their peers by sharing articles and gists. Students read the article first and then read the GIST to see if it accurately reflects the article.

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Related Resources


Grades   7 – 12  |  Calendar Activity  |  February 10

The New York Times used the slogan "All the News That's Fit to Print."

After discussing newspapers and their different points of view, students choose a current event, read editorials on the event, and share them with the class to identify the editor's point of view.


Grades   7 – 12  |  Calendar Activity  |  July 16

African American journalist Ida B. Wells was born in 1862.

Students brainstorm a list of human rights issues, research their group's issue in depth, examine the way journalists cover a story, and create articles for a classroom newspaper.


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Grades   6 – 12  |  Strategy Guide

Supporting Student Comprehension in Content Area Reading

In this strategy guide, you'll learn a few simple, yet powerful, techniques to encourage students to use peer talk and writing to enhance their understanding of content area texts.


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I love the GIST strategy. I am concerned with the fact that different teachers require different lengths for summarizing. I will use this in my classroom, because I use writing a lot in my classes.


Hillary Fortun

April 10, 2013

GIST stands for Generating Interactions between Schemata and Text.


gist--" the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work" Why do we need an acronym for everything? Gist is what it is. I think it's a great idea as a strategy to teach kids not to be so wordy when writing a summary. It's so difficult to teach summarizing because there are a variety of lengths that people (or test practitioners) are looking for. I think GIST may help kids to recognize that getting to the heart of the matter is essential in summarizing and I think GIST may be the way to get them going in that direction. I'm intrigued and will try it and get back to this website with my findings. Thanks for posting the lesson and for the comments that helped me decide to try this strategy.



November 09, 2011

love this wedsite im a 12grade teacher it gives me alot


Can you please provide a completed example of the GIST template. I would like to see exactly what the 20 words should look like.


I'd like to use the gist template with grade 7 for a lesson in summarizing, but what do students put in the bottom of the form that has 20 Gists? Are they recording key words from the text?


Myra, thank you for the useful website. I think it provides a crucial step in the Gist strategy that is missing from the website provided with the lesson - writing down key words directly from the text. This gives them a guide of words to use when writing their 20 word summary.
This website list three reading strategies including GIST. On this page it states that tthe acronym GIST stands for Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text.


Mary Ellen

September 21, 2010

The objective of this lesson is to learn how to use the GIST strategy and increase student comprehension when reading content area text. Looking up the word GIST in the dictionary is not an effective way to introduce the strategy to students--most students, even when they can find the word in the dictionary, still cannot make meaning. While failure may build character--I do not believe it is relevant in this lesson.
Who wants to start out learning by being frustrated? Struggling learners will be turned off from the start.


The original word is "gyst" which means the essence of a literary work. It has been given an urban spelling to fit the acronym. So, Sharon, while Kaylee and Pilar have given you where GIST came from (which is great, by the way), you wouldn't find that in a dictionary because it is an acronym. Bean's method wouldn't work here.


Good Morning Sharon, I'm not young anymore, and the term gist has been used by me since I was a child. I know books are a thing of the past, at least ones that don't have a skewed version of... But I would suggest opening up your Webster's Dictionary instead of asking first. This technique is also good for teaching a child, even if they can't spell it. Make them search for it, in the dictionary, not online (the computer makes people lazy because, if it isn't autofilling, its suggesting, "did you mean?".

They will get frustrated at a point when they can't find or spell it properly, IN THE DICTIONARY. Yes, failure is a part of life, but it builds character. At a reasonable point in time, be there to assist, you want them to like challenges.

Failure is not fun, but it happens and you must prepare a child for this. If they have any core character to begin with, they'll move on. If not, you'll be helping to build it.



The gist of something is like the general idea of things.
If you would like an acronym try GIST; General Idea Surrounding Text.


Kaylee Olney, RWT Staff

February 17, 2010

Hi Sharon, The original website that described the Gist strategy was taken down and we have replaced it with another site. I hope you find it helpful. "Gist" doesn't stand for anything; it just means to get the main point of something. The lesson formally had GIST in all caps. We have changed the style and the title of the lesson to eliminate this confusion.


Sharon Oliver

February 01, 2010

had difficulty finding information on "GIST" - I do no understand what it stands for. I could not find the definition through the link given.



Go to Patient Version


Although they comprise fewer than 1% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tumors, GIST are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract.[1] It has been estimated that there are 3,300 to 6,000 new GIST cases per year in the United States.[2] A study based on Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry data found that the age-adjusted yearly incidence of GIST in the United States was 6.8 per million from 1992 to 2000.[3] However, the true incidence is not known, in part because many tumors have not been tested for the characteristic KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) gene mutations. In addition, small, indolent GIST, only a few millimeters in diameter, are common in the general population and are not included in cancer registries.[4,5] GIST are equally distributed across all geographic and ethnic groups and men and women are equally affected. Most patients present between the ages of 50 and 80.[6] The vast majority of GIST are sporadic, but there are rare familial forms associated with the characteristic heritable mutations in the KIT gene (or, rarely, in succinate dehydrogenase genes in Carney-Stratakis syndrome). Familial GIST may present as multiple primary tumors.

Clinical Presentation and Diagnostic Evaluation

GIST can occur anywhere along the GI tract, but most often are found in the stomach or small intestine. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual lists the following approximate distributions:[7]

  • Stomach (60%).
  • Small intestine (30%).
  • Rectum (3%).
  • Colon (1–2%).
  • Esophagus (<1%).
  • Omentum/mesentery (rare).

Less frequently, GIST may arise in the appendix, gallbladder, pancreas, retroperitoneum, and paravaginal and periprostatic tissues.[8] Approximately 20% to 25% of gastric GIST and 40% to 50% of small intestinal GIST are clinically aggressive.[9,10] It has been estimated that approximately 10% to 25% of patients present with metastatic disease.[9,11]

The clinical presentation of patients with GIST varies depending on the anatomic location of the tumor and the tumor size and aggressiveness.[12] The most common presentation of GIST is GI bleeding, which may be acute (melena or hematemesis) or chronic and results in anemia.[10]

GIST patients may also present with:

  • An acute abdomen caused by tumor rupture.
  • GI obstruction.
  • Appendicitis-like pain.

Other clinical symptoms include the following:[2]

  • Fatigue.
  • Dysphagia.
  • Satiety.

Smaller lesions may be incidental findings during surgery, radiologic studies, or endoscopy. The natural history of these incidental tumors and the frequency of progression to symptomatic disease are unknown. There may be a substantial reservoir of small GIST tumors that do not progress to symptomatic stages. For example, a series of 98 consecutive systematic autopsies on adults who died of unrelated causes revealed grossly recognizable gastric tumors (1 mm–6 mm) that were histologically diagnosed as GIST in 22.5% of cases.[5] Sufficient DNA was available for analysis in 26 patients, revealing 13 patients with mutations in KIT exon 11 and one in PDGFRA.

In a retrospective study of 200 GIST cases, typical clinical manifestations of malignancy included liver metastases and/or dissemination within the abdominal cavity. Lymph node involvement and spread to the lungs or other extra-abdominal sites was unusual.[11] Advanced disease may be associated with metastases to distant sites, including lung and bone. Brain metastases are rare.[2]

GIST should be included in the differential diagnosis of any intra-abdominal nonepithelial malignancy. Diagnostic interventions may include the following:[12]

  • Computed tomography (CT).
  • Magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Upper GI endoscopy.

Tests that may be useful in staging include the following:

  • 18F-FDG PET (fluorine F 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography).
  • CT.

Endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration biopsy is useful in the detection of GIST in the upper GI tract because most tumors arise below the mucosal layer and grow in an endophytic fashion.[12-14]

Because nodal metastasis is so rare at diagnosis (i.e., it is virtually unheard of for true GIST according to the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual [7]), there is general agreement that nodal dissection is not needed.

Pathology and Molecular Genetics

Typically arising within the muscle wall of the GI tract, GIST range in size from less than 1 cm to more than 40 cm, with an average size of approximately 5 cm when diagnosed clinically.[2] Small GIST may form solid subserosal, intramural, or, less frequently, polypoid intraluminal masses. Large tumors tend to form external masses attached to the outer aspect of the gut involving the muscular layers.[2] GIST morphology is quite varied; the tumors are composed of the following:[8]

  • Spindle cells (70%).
  • Epithelioid cells (20%).
  • Mixed spindle and epithelioid cells (10%).

GIST encompass a broad continuum of histologic patterns, ranging from bland-appearing tumors with very low mitotic activity (often previously designated leiomyomas) to very aggressive-appearing patterns (previously often called leiomyosarcomas).[7] They may originate from interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) or their stem cell-like precursors, although this is not certain.[15,16]

The most commonly used marker for GIST is the CD117 antigen, a marker expressed by ICC. Approximately 95% of GISTs are positive for the CD117 antigen, an epitope of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase.[2,9] However, CD117 immunohistochemistry is not specific for GIST, as weak reactivity occurs with other mesenchymal neoplasms; accordingly, morphologic examination and the use of other immunostains in difficult cases are indispensable.[17] In addition, false-positive CD117 staining can occur if antigen retrieval techniques are used in the pathology laboratory to enhance marker expression.[18] Because of a relatively broad morphologic spectrum, the differential diagnosis of GIST includes several mesenchymal, neural, and neuroendocrine neoplasms that occur in the abdomen including the following:[8]

  • Leiomyoma.
  • Leiomyosarcoma.
  • Schwannoma.
  • Malignant peripheral-nerve sheath tumor.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
  • Fibromatosis.
  • Synovial sarcoma.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid and islet cell).
  • Gastric glomus tumor.
  • Malignant mesothelioma.
  • Angiosarcoma.
  • Sarcomatoid carcinoma.

Approximately 85% of GIST contain oncogenic mutations in one of two receptor tyrosine kinases: KIT or PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha).[2,10] Constitutive activation of either of these receptor tyrosine kinases plays a central role in the pathogenesis of GIST.[15,19] Wild-type tumors, with no detectable KIT or PDGFRA mutations, account for 12% to 15% of all GIST. Fewer than 5% of GIST occur in the setting of syndromic diseases, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Carney triad syndrome, and other familial diseases.[2,20-22] The correct identification of GIST is very important because of the availability of specific, molecular-targeted therapy with KIT/PDGFRA tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as imatinib mesylate or, in the case of imatinib-resistant GIST, sunitinib malate.[1,10,17]

Risk Assessment and Prognosis

At the time of clinical presentation, the prognosis appears to be influenced by genetic events other than kinase mutations, although a particular kinase mutation may help to define the initial clinical course of a GIST. Based on retrospective studies from time periods that predated the clinical use of kinase inhibitors, current recommendations for assessing the risk of progression for a newly diagnosed primary GIST rely on three parameters (see Table 1):[2,23-26]

  • Mitotic index (mitoses per 50 high-power fields).
  • Tumor size.
  • Tumor location.
Mitotic Index, hpfSize, cmSite and Risk of Progressive Disease (%)
≤5 per 50≤2 None (0) None (0)None (0)None (0)
>2 ≤5Very low (1.9)Low (4.3)Low (8.3)Low (8.5)
>5 ≤10Low (3.6)Moderate (24)(Insufficient data)(Insufficient data)
>10Moderate (12)High (52)High (34)High (57)b
>5 per 50≤2NonebHighb(Insufficient data)High (54)
>2 ≤5Moderate (16)High (73) High (50)High (52)
>5 ≤10High (55)High (85)(Insufficient data)(Insufficient data)
>10High (86)High (90)High (86)High (71)


Compared to other intra-abdominal sarcomas, survival in GIST patients after surgery alone is favorable.[27] In a retrospective study involving 200 patients that predated the use of TKI, the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for GIST patients with primary disease who underwent complete resection of gross disease (N = 80) was 54%, with survival predicted by tumor size; the overall disease-specific survival was 35% at 5 years.[11] Other studies, which also predated TKI, reported 5-year survival rates of 40% to 63% for patients undergoing complete resections of GIST.

In the retrospective study of 200 patients cited in Table 1 above, 7% had isolated local recurrence and 47% had metastasis.[11] The site of relapse for GIST is usually intra-abdominal, involving the peritoneum, the liver, or both; true local recurrences are uncommon, and typically there is widespread intraperitoneal recurrence that may not be detectable by imaging techniques.[27] The median disease-specific survival of patients with metastatic GIST (N = 94) was 19 months.[11] In one retrospective study involving 119 patients with metastatic GIST, it was found that once a GIST becomes metastatic, kinase genotype did not factor into overall survival.[28]

The median time to recurrence for patients on imatinib is 2 years.[27]


The most appropriate tests and frequency of testing for metastatic or recurrent disease in patients who have undergone GIST resection are ill-defined, since the impact of follow-up strategies on clinical outcomes is not known. Follow-up recommendations are, therefore, based upon expert opinion and clinical judgment taking into account tumor site, size, and mitotic index. For surgically treated patients with localized disease, routine follow-up schedules may differ across institutions and may depend on the risk status of the tumor.[18] Abdominal/pelvic CT may be performed every 3 to 6 months, but very low-risk lesions may not need routine follow-up testing.[18]

CT or 18F-FDG PET are used to monitor therapeutic effects in patients receiving systemic therapy for unresectable, metastatic, or recurrent disease.[27] 18F-FDG PET may also be helpful in detecting resistance to TKI. If 18F-FDG PET is used to monitor therapy with a TKI, a baseline FDG PET is often performed before kinase inhibitor administration. Because 18F-FDG PET imaging may detect the activity of imatinib in GIST much earlier than CT imaging, imaging of GIST with 18F-FDG PET may represent a useful diagnostic modality for the very early assessment of response to imatinib therapy; a decrease in tumor avidity for 18F-FDG may be detected as early as 24 hours after a single dose of imatinib.[12]

Related Summary

(Refer to the Abdominal Cancers section in the PDQ summary on Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment for information on gastrointestinal stromal tumors in children.)

  1. Judson I, Demetri G: Advances in the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Ann Oncol 18 (Suppl 10): x20-4, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Corless CL, Heinrich MC: Molecular pathobiology of gastrointestinal stromal sarcomas. Annu Rev Pathol 3: 557-86, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Tran T, Davila JA, El-Serag HB: The epidemiology of malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors: an analysis of 1,458 cases from 1992 to 2000. Am J Gastroenterol 100 (1): 162-8, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Kawanowa K, Sakuma Y, Sakurai S, et al.: High incidence of microscopic gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the stomach. Hum Pathol 37 (12): 1527-35, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Agaimy A, Wünsch PH, Hofstaedter F, et al.: Minute gastric sclerosing stromal tumors (GIST tumorlets) are common in adults and frequently show c-KIT mutations. Am J Surg Pathol 31 (1): 113-20, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Nowain A, Bhakta H, Pais S, et al.: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: clinical profile, pathogenesis, treatment strategies and prognosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20 (6): 818-24, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 175-80.
  8. Corless CL, Fletcher JA, Heinrich MC: Biology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. J Clin Oncol 22 (18): 3813-25, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Joensuu H: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Ann Oncol 17 (Suppl 10): x280-6, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Miettinen M, Lasota J: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: review on morphology, molecular pathology, prognosis, and differential diagnosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130 (10): 1466-78, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  11. DeMatteo RP, Lewis JJ, Leung D, et al.: Two hundred gastrointestinal stromal tumors: recurrence patterns and prognostic factors for survival. Ann Surg 231 (1): 51-8, 2000. [PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Demetri GD: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp 1060-73.
  13. Nickl NJ: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: new progress, new questions. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 20 (5): 482-7, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  14. Vander Noot MR 3rd, Eloubeidi MA, Chen VK, et al.: Diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract lesions by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Cancer 102 (3): 157-63, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Hirota S, Isozaki K, Moriyama Y, et al.: Gain-of-function mutations of c-kit in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Science 279 (5350): 577-80, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  16. Kindblom LG, Remotti HE, Aldenborg F, et al.: Gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor (GIPACT): gastrointestinal stromal tumors show phenotypic characteristics of the interstitial cells of Cajal. Am J Pathol 152 (5): 1259-69, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  17. Antonescu CR: Targeted therapy of cancer: new roles for pathologists in identifying GISTs and other sarcomas. Mod Pathol 21 (Suppl 2): S31-6, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  18. Casali PG, Jost L, Reichardt P, et al.: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: ESMO clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 19 (Suppl 2): ii35-8, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  19. Heinrich MC, Corless CL, Duensing A, et al.: PDGFRA activating mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Science 299 (5607): 708-10, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  20. Andersson J, Sihto H, Meis-Kindblom JM, et al.: NF1-associated gastrointestinal stromal tumors have unique clinical, phenotypic, and genotypic characteristics. Am J Surg Pathol 29 (9): 1170-6, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  21. Agaimy A, Pelz AF, Corless CL, et al.: Epithelioid gastric stromal tumours of the antrum in young females with the Carney triad: a report of three new cases with mutational analysis and comparative genomic hybridization. Oncol Rep 18 (1): 9-15, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  22. Carney JA: Gastric stromal sarcoma, pulmonary chondroma, and extra-adrenal paraganglioma (Carney Triad): natural history, adrenocortical component, and possible familial occurrence. Mayo Clin Proc 74 (6): 543-52, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  23. Miettinen M, Sobin LH, Lasota J: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 1765 cases with long-term follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol 29 (1): 52-68, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  24. Miettinen M, Makhlouf H, Sobin LH, et al.: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the jejunum and ileum: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 906 cases before imatinib with long-term follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol 30 (4): 477-89, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  25. Miettinen M, Kopczynski J, Makhlouf HR, et al.: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, intramural leiomyomas, and leiomyosarcomas in the duodenum: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 167 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 27 (5): 625-41, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
  26. Miettinen M, Furlong M, Sarlomo-Rikala M, et al.: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, intramural leiomyomas, and leiomyosarcomas in the rectum and anus: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 144 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 25 (9): 1121-33, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
  27. Demetri GD, Benjamin RS, Blanke CD, et al.: NCCN Task Force report: management of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)--update of the NCCN clinical practice guidelines. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 5 (Suppl 2): S1-29; quiz S30, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  28. Gold JS, van der Zwan SM, Gönen M, et al.: Outcome of metastatic GIST in the era before tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Ann Surg Oncol 14 (1): 134-42, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]

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