EUPHORIA [Gr. euphoria] an exaggerated feeling of well-being, especially irrational or groundless (Chambers)
[Mod L. from Gr. euphoria, the power of bearing easily, from euphoros, bearing well; eu-, well, and pherein, to bear] a feeling of well-being; especially, in psychology, an abnormal feeling of buoyant vigour and health (Websters)
A word used to express well-being, or the perfect ease and comfort of healthy persons, especially when the sensation occurs in a sick person. (OED)
ECSTASY [Gr. ekstasis – ek, from, and root of histanai, to make to stand] a state of temporary mental alienation and altered or diminished consciousness: excessive joy: enthusiasm, or any exalted feeling, rapture (Chambers)
[LL. ecstasis; Gr. ekstasis, a being put out of its place, distraction, trance, from ek, out, and histanai, to place] a trance, especially one resulting from great religious fervour – Whether what we call ecstasy be not dreaming with our eyes open, I leave to be examined; Locke – great joy, rapture, a feeling of delight that arrests the whole mind, as, to listen with ecstasy; a state of being overpowered with emotion, especially joy, the condition of being beside oneself with feeling, as, an ecstasy of delight; madness, distraction (obs.) (Websters)
Primarily a fixed state; a trance; a state in which the mind is arrested and fixed or as we say lost. A state in which the functions of the senses are suspended by the contemplation of some extraordinary or supernatural object. Excessive joy; rapture; a degree of delight that arrests the whole mind. Enthusiasm; excessive elevation and absorption of mind; extreme delight. (Part & Preston)
EXHILARATION [L. exhilarare, -atum – ex-, intensive, hilaris, cheerful] the state of being exhilarated (to make hilarious or merry: to raise the spirits of: to enliven: to cheer): joyousness (Chambers)
[LL. exhilaratio (-onis), a gladdening or enlivening, from L. exhilaratus, pp of exhilarare, to gladden] the act of enlivening the spirits; the act of making glad or cheerful; the state of being enlivened or cheerful; liveliness; animation; high spirits (Websters)
The act of enlivening the spirits; the act of making glad or cheerful. The state of being enlivened or cheerful. Exhilaration usually expresses less than joy or mirth but may be used to express both. (Part & Preston)
MIND; ECSTASY:Acon., aether, agar., agn., am-c., androc., ang., anh., ant-c., apis, arn., astra-e., bell., berb., bry., camph., cann-i., Cann-s., canth., carb-v., carbn-h., cast., cham., chin., cic., cinnb., coca, cocc., coff., croc., crot-h., cupr., cupr-am-s., cur., cypr., ery-a., fl-ac., hyos., ign., iod., jatr., keroso., kres., lach., laur., lyss., nit-ac., nitro-o., nux-m., olnd., op., ph-ac., Phos., pic-ac., plat., plb., puls., sabad., sel., senec., sil., stann., staph., stram., sulph., sumb., thea., valer., verat.
MIND; EUPHORIA: androc., ange-s., anh., aran-ix., asar., chloram., cob-n., cortiso., dicha., germ., hydro-c., kres., lap-c-b., lap-mar-c., mand., ozone, palo., perh., thyr.
MIND; EXHILARATION: absin., acon., aesc., aether, agar., agar-se., agn., alco., alf., allox., alum., am-c., ammc., anac., anag., androc., ang., ant-c., arg., arg-n., arist-cl., arn., ars-h., arum-d., asar., asc-t., bell., bor., bov., calc-f., camph., Cann-i., cann-s., canth., caps., carb-ac., carb-an., carb-v., carbn-s., cean., chel., chin., chin-ar., chin-s., cimic., cinnb., clem., cob., coca, cocc., cod., Coff., colch., coll., cortico., cortiso., cot., croc., cub., cupr., cupr-ar., cycl., cypr., erio., eucal., eug., fl-ac., form., gels., graph., hydr., hydrog., hyos., ign., iod., iodof., kali-br., kali-n., lac-ac., Lach., lap-c-b., laur., lil-t., lyss., mand., med., meny., mez., myric., nitro-o., nux-v., Op., ox-ac., ozone, pall., phel., phos., phys., pip-m., plat., sabad., sang., scut., sec., seneg., sep., spig., spong., stram., sul-ac., sulfa., sulph., sumb., tanac., Tarent., teucr., thea., thlaspi, thuj., valer., verat., visc., zinc., ziz. (Complete Repertory ver 4.5)
The three rubrics represent similar states but there are important differences. In terms of a hierarchy, the lowest state is exhilaration, followed by euphoria, followed by ecstasy, but since euphoria and ecstasy represent quite different states, this might be represented diagrammatically as:
rather than a straight line progression between the three. This idea is supported by examining the remedies present in the three rubrics. There are 163 remedies represented between the three rubrics. Looking at remedies that appear in more than one of the rubrics, of which there are 48, 40 appear in both EXHILARATION and ECSTASY, 5 appear in EXHILARATION and EUPHORIA, only 2 in EUPHORIA and ECSTASY and only 1 in all three. This is confirmed by a glance at the cross references in Synthesis and the Complete Repertory – both EUPHORIA and ECSTASY contain references to EXHILARATION, but neither have references to each other.
The root of ecstasy is ‘a being put out of its place’; it is most commonly used to describe trance-like states, often in connection with spiritual ritual. The definitions cite ‘overpowered with emotion’, ‘altered or diminished consciousness’, ‘beside oneself with feeling’, ‘the functions of the senses are suspended’ which describe a state of being outside normal frames of reference.
Euphoria, on the other hand, conveys a sense of greater connection with bodily sensation – ‘bearing well’, ‘an abnormal feeling of buoyant vigour and health’. There is no intimation of altered states of consciousness, or being ‘out of place’; in fact, an exaggerated sense of health would preclude anything being ‘out of place’. Neither do the definitions contain any reference to joyful emotions. Even though most people would probably equate euphoria with a joyous state (but see following paragraph) on some level, it could equally well apply to an emotionless state. (It does not appear in Kent’s Repertory as a rubric. In Synthesis, the additions are attributed to J Stephenson, G H G Jahr, J Mezger and J Sherr; in the Complete Repertory, J Stephenson, O Julian and J Sherr.)
True states of euphoria or ecstasy are probably encountered less frequently than peoples’ use of the words might indicate. Most likely they are more often describing exhilaration, which is ‘the state of being enlivened or cheerful’, or equating euphoria and/or ecstasy with a feeling similar to that induced by intoxication. This is brought out most strongly in the subrubric EUPHORIA, lightness, feeling of, as after an anesthesia by, chlorethylene, with; a state which bears no relation to the dictionary definition of euphoria (see Asarum below).
* * * * * * *
Given the large number of remedies within the rubrics, I decided to look at the ones which, according to this understanding of the differences in meaning and manifestation, were the most unusual: the one remedy that appears in all three rubrics and the two that appear in both Euphoria and Ecstasy (but not Exhilaration). These are Androctonos (all three rubrics), Anhalonium and Kresolum. Although Kresolum is an extremely small proving, I looked at the rubrics the three remedies shared and found surprisingly few (11), all of which (apart from ECSTASY and EUPHORIA) are pretty much universal. But even Androctonos (326 mental rubrics in total) and Anhalonium (200) only share 58 mental rubrics, of which 23 are ‘universal’, and many others extremely large. This seemed surprising, and I began to wonder if the terms ‘ecstasy’ and ‘euphoria’ had perhaps been confused, or whether ‘euphoria’ had been interpreted as ‘intoxicated’ or ‘light-headed’.
Dr Mansoor Ali.
Govt. Homeopathic Medical College. Calicut
This work is meant for serious students of Homoeopathy and for those who sincerely want to understand and interpret the rubrics. It does not promise solutions but it represents an honest search.
Most of the Homoeopaths consider the symptoms of the human mind to be the most important while treating any case. They cover the emotional as well as the intellectual and communicational characteristics. They play an important role in unfolding the true image of the sickness, but in practical experience are very difficult to obtain from the sick person and are also difficult to understand or interpret correctly. To be acceptable the mental symptoms must be peculiar and characteristic of the patient.
Many practitioners and students find it difficult to interpret the symptoms and conditions in relation with repertory and to arrive at the similimum. One of the main problems we encounter in practice is the conversion of the patient’s symptoms in the proper language of the repertory. In order to overcome this problem we should understand exactly the meaning of each rubric, sub rubric with cross references and remedies. The mental rubrics especially, are difficult to understand by dictionary meanings alone. We should understand the correct meaning assigned to a particular rubric from the mouth of great teachers and by constant practice. Many of the rubrics are of similar meaning but confusing also. This is an effort to help such persons especially the newcomers in unfolding the finer differentiating points among the so called important similar rubrics. Appropriate examples are also given for easy comprehension.
I make no pretence that this work is either complete or final. I have made an honest attempt to compare & compile the explanations and examples given by eminent authors and my beloved teachers together. Despite all these there are limitations in the interpretations of rubrics and the void is to be filled by the experience of each practitioner with the knowledge of Materia medica. My aim is to stimulate the students and practitioners to make their own ideas and observations.
I welcome any suggestions from any quarter it may be, so that this work can be improved upon further. My special thanks to Prof. K. B. Ramesh Principal GHMC Calicut for his valuable comments and suggestions.
1. Absent minded
Inattention of mind
Preoccupied to the point of failure to respond to the ordinary demands on the attention without having any thoughts. A person who is not doing anything and still he doesn’t respond to the ordinary calls although he has no other thoughts in his mind.
Eg. A person when asked any question, does not respond at first call. Looks as if thinking something else, but when asked, he has no other thoughts which remain a fact. Generally he is observed to behave like this at home also.
Compare with Absorbed -An intellectual mental rubric -As in Edison, Einstein etc.
Being fixed in certain thoughts .The mental capacities are working perfectly well, but the mind is fixed in certain thoughts, totally engaged in certain problems, introspective and not reading what is going around him.
- In Absentmindedness there is no fixation of mind at all,
- In Absorbed the mind is directed towards one problem.
- Abstraction of mind : A destructive symptom, something in the mind has been lost
Here the person is totally out of reality, separated from the rest of the world. This state is going to schizophrenia usually found after the use of psychedelic drugs.
Person is in the habit of employing harsh insulting languages. These words used by him as a routine. He may abuse the doctor who treated earlier .They usually have the habit of insulting people
Abusive may be a nature of a person or it can be a changed state without the involvement of any other faculty.
Cursing is due to some provocation by somebody or some provocative ideas
Swearing. A lady after a heated exchange with another lady makes an oath to inflict a misfortune to that lady who was in confrontation with her.
An intense desire for love particularly sexual. Greatly attracted towards sexual matters even in thoughts or dreams. Practical indulgence in sex is not necessary, but it is the diversion of mental energy towards that side.
Compare with Lasciviousness : Extreme desire for sex, always devoting his energy towards this type of lustful desire. He may be sick and still he is asking the physician whether he has to observe any restriction on sex. In lasciviousness, a person is much more attracted towards sexual thoughts and act.
Lewdness. The sexual thoughts may not be predominating but the person desires to expose the body. She will leave them uncovered in such a manner that she remains exposed. This is a voluntary act.
Shameless. Patient always seem to be half naked or talk in a shameless manner which is noticed by all but she does not pay attention to her dress or talk. This is an involuntary act.
Something spoken in return to a satisfying question
- Abruptly – To answer in an unexpected manner
- Shortly – ina short manner, every answer is very short which may or may not cover the point.
- Curtly – in a curt manner, the reply is a type of annoying or irritable manner
- Averse to – does not want to answer, averse to answer to any question.
- Snappishly – in an abrupt manner
Painful or apprehensive uneasiness of mind usually over an impeding or anticipating ill. A strong concern about some imminent development or strong desire mixed with doubt and fear, for some event or issue with strong dominating blend of uncertainty. An abnormal or overwhelming sense of apprehension and fear often marked by such physical symptoms as tension, tremor, sweating, increased pulse rate etc.
Fear: The difference between fear and anxiety has to be understood clearly. In anxiety there may not be an apprehension of something going to happen, but it is definitely felt under fear with excited feeling. Fear has a definite cause.
A feeling of superiority manifested in an overbearing manner. Whenever a person having a feeling of superiority, it should be judged whether it is of a proudly nature or due to some altered states of mind. There is a strong feeling of superiority in these individuals. For eg: A lady may say that she could use only high quality medicines. Haughty ,there is an excessive claim over something in comparison to others. May occur in personality disorders & organic brain disorders.
An excessive insatiable desire for wealth and gain. He is always in search of increasing his wealth and possessions. The person is always very active and not feeling tired for increasing his wealth and possession. He may be in such a level that he may have enough for him and his family’s needs. Yet he is desirous to acquire more and more, that is more than what he needs.
Compare with Covetous. Desire to possess something, which belongs to others.
Miserly A great desire to save money even from occasions where it is considered necessary to spend. eg. He will not spend at the death ceremony of his mother. He thinks his brothers are there to meet all the expenditures so that he shouldn’t spend anything. Mainly found in narcissist & antisocial personalities.
A firmly settled and vehement dislike. A feeling of repugnance towards something with a desire to avoid or turn away from it. A person knows his family members, relatives, friends etc. but when he feels aversion to any one of them, he does not like or care or even to talk with such a person.
Compare with Hatred. A settled dislike with prejudiced feeling for a particular person or aspect. Eg. A person offended by his relatives does not like to hear even his name.
Disgust. An intense dislike for something, to lose the interest, that is, when a person meets repeated failures, he feels disgusted and stop further effort. This condition is usually found in avoidance personalities.
Hatred – is applied to a particular individual of affair
Misanthropy – Hatred from the whole mankind. He does not have least feeling for any number of human deaths as he hates mankind.
A state of mental confusion, perplexity, lack of power to distinguish with certainty. In general or during the course of the sickness, a person losses his mental equilibrium in deciding this or that and he appears to be confused or blunted. Usually found in prolonged fevers, hepatic or renal pre comatose conditions, drugs or diabetic coma.
Compare with confusion where individual is generally all right. But whenever he sits for doing some calculation work he gets confused and he is unable to carry on that work as in Nux Vomica.
The individual have a tendency to speak quite high of himself and wants to praise himself for the things he have achieved. A person speaking of asserting with much pride on himself
Compare with: Haughty : Arrogantly proud .Thinking oneself to be in a high position or having excessive claim over something in comparison with others. The person is very proud of his looks, his intellect, the cloths he wears, and the religion he professes, He compare himself with others and tend to be looked down upon them in contempt.
POMPOUS: Marked by an exaggerated show of dignity of self-importance. They have an air of superiority.
VANITY: Excessive pride in one’s appearance or accomplishment. Always preoccupied with their appearance, achievements or belongings
Fearless before danger, assured and confident
A condition where in person although weak or unable to sustain anything but still he resolves to face any dangerous and alarming difficult situations with courage and confidence.
He is not afraid of any dangerous consequences of the situation in which he is placed.
Compare wit: HIGH SPIRITED : Characterized by a bold, energetic feeling despite being placed in tense situation, It is the bold and courageous attitude one takes up towards the ups and downs one encountered in life. A person is so energetic mentally that even while suffering from a severe chronic disease he says that he will be alright very soon, that nothing is going to happen to him and takes all the advices in a jolly way.
Daring : Recklessly bold.
Presumptuous : Bold and over confident
AUDACITY: A negative boldness. Daring boldness with assurance, too much self-confidence, being overbold, imprudent in a shameless way. Sometime as a person who is not bold in the basic nature, but during the course of illness maintain boldness, which is an altered state of mind.
Impertinence – Rude without respect
Insolent Lack of respect
Temerity – Rash & overconfident
Sitting up on eggs – to remain settled over something, to dwell in their mind for a long time on one subject, usually a negative thought.
A continued distressed feeling in the mind created by disturbance of the emotional level.
BROODING means ,being occupied with things in the present
DWELL means being occupied with things in the past
ABSORBED An intellectual mental rubric. As in great scientists like Edison, Einstein etc being fixed in certain thoughts .The mental capacities are working perfectly well, but the mind is fixed in certain thoughts, totally engaged in certain problem, introspective and not reading what is going around him.
The state or quality of being grossly ruthless, cruel and cold blooded
Compare with: Cruelty. Lower grade than brutality. A person by nature observes pleasure in giving pain to others and who is very hard hearted – an inhuman behavior. A deliberate attempt in inflecting pain or suffering to others, his behavior is merciless and is not having any moral obligation.
MALICIOUS: Person who is generally in the habit of making plans to harm others, with an extreme disposition to injure – will fully involve commission of wrong.
RUDNESS: A general and habitual deficiency in manner and grace or coarse insensibility to another’s feeling. They have no respect for elders, no concerns for friends and do not observe any kind of manners when dealing with people. He is talking very harshly to maid servant, when his uncle stopped him, he started behaving rudely with them also. They are loud, harsh, and at times very much uncivilized
WICKED DISPOSITION: Evil in principle or practice. Acting contrary to moral or Devine law. They always play some nonsense tricks, creating nuisance by doing wrong to others, they are addicted to immoral traffic, always has an intention to harm or inflict anguish to others.
An irrational behavior lacking in judgment, consideration or intelligence foolish behavior
The behavior is so strange that he can be judged to be in a state of delirium and while talking, he has no regards to the position or status of the person he is talking with. He may go on talking by which his action may be assumed to be foolish.
In CHILDISH behavior – a person of grown up age behaves like a child.
In FOOLISH behavior – a person behaves in a foolish manner irrespective of age
Idiocy : Is worse than Imbecility- IQ much lower
A condition of subnormal intellectual development or ability, marked by intelligence in the lowest measurable range. Commonly due to incomplete or abnormal development of brain usually congenital or due to arrest or development following disease or injury in early childhood. The difference between Idiocy and Foolish behavior is that the former is due to deficiency or under development of brain while the later has no deficiency of brain.
STUPIDITY: An unintelligent behavior or action, which can be easily judged by somebody. They are dull from the intellectual side and they are not doing such acts deliberately. Eg. A person is watering the plants, during this time some gusts come to his house, the path was narrow but the he does not stop the spray, resulting in wetting the clothes of gusts, they call him a stupid.
Vivacity or hilarity
The individual is mentally very elated and gay, so that he avoids or run away from responsibility
Compare with: Strength increased mental : The quality or state of being mentally strong, power to sustain and withstand stress and strain. Their mind always being active, they have abundant ideas. They are tough people having a firm will and character, moral courage or power.
VIVACIOUS : Having vigorous power of life, full of animation and spirit. She is so enthusiastic about life, that she always remain in a happy mood. If he find anybody in distressing condition he will console him that, nothing wrongly will happen as he is also faced many difficulties and yet he is very happy. A young beautiful girl, who is full of life and active, always being fun and always in a cheerful, jovial mood, involving others around her in gaiety and fun.
Activity : Constantly being engaged in action, too busy, preoccupied by only performance, a demand for action. Also a desire to do something despite physical incapacity.
- Aversion to – a person who has no inclination to attended to his business or a student does not want to study
- Incapacity for – a person quite fit for attempting to his job feels that he is unable to carry on his business.
- Talk of – a person although sick say “I have to attend to this or that business”
18.BUSY: – occupied or engaged in action
Being constantly engaged about something,
These patients are always engaged or occupied in their respective work
Most of the time and they are not diverted unless disturbed.
Compare with: Industrious : A disposition to be constantly regularly or habitually occupied. Certain type of individual can never be satisfied when they are unoccupied. Even though he is unable to do any physical works due to illness, he has a desire to do many pending jobs. This people always take on some work in their free time, even in ill health, but in many times this works are fruitless also.
Here the person is extremely free from agitation, excitement, hurry etc.
A state of repose and freedom from turmoil or agitation
Compare with: Mildness. Gentle nature or behavior characterized by kindness and soothe behavior. Others are generally making a reference that he is a very mild person and he is helpful to all. They can never offend or behave harshly to others.
SERENE. A state of calmness or clearness of mind and kindly disposed towards every one. They are always at peace and unruffled by an event always having a state of even mind. Even though he is sick, he is lying so nicely and quietly that does not seems to be sick. From his face he seems to be quiet at peace although he might be suffering from serious problem.
To utter maliciously false statement, charges or imputations. About desire to utter false statement, charges or imputations in order to impair the public reputation of the persons. Like the common false statements and allegations made by politicians against the leaders of the opposite party.
It is a personality disorder
Compare with: Gossiping: Indulging in rumor or talk of a personal, intimate and often sensational nature. A meeting of friendly talks for the entertainment of each other without a specific purpose. Since talk may include rumors, beauty of somebody, information behind the scene, about the doings of others etc.
MORAL feeling want of: One more rubric related with the behavior of politicians. Lack of concerns with the principles of right and wrong. Lacking humanitarian considerations in actions, thoughts and conduct. An antisocial personality disorder in which, he cannot differentiate between right and wrong.
SLANDER disposition to Utterance of defamatory statements injurious to reputation of wellbeing of a person. They have tendency to formulate false stories about any one with malefic intention to spoil somebody’s reputation and in society by propagating some stories orally before others. They uttering falls scandals and reports in order to disgrace, reproach and defame others.
- Sudden change of opinions and purposes without any reasons. OR
- Disposition change one’s mind impulsively
- A mental state of irritability, where a person’s refuses anything asked for by him, when it is offered to be
Compare with: INCONSTANCY: Changeableness, one who cannot stick to one place or in one occupation. A person is of such nature that he cannot sit in one place for some time, cannot stay in one profession for long. In all he is so much changeable that he can be observed easily by any one.
IRRESOLUTION: A person who cannot make up his mind and is in turmoil when asked to make a selection or indicate his choice. He may also change his decision frequently. The person is so much undecided in his mind that whenever he has undertaken any work he will think whether he should do that or not. Is not sure of the consequences a job.
PERSIST in nothing: The continuance of an effort after the cause is removed. Jumping from one thing to another without any purposes. They are fickle minded and always wavering and unsteady. They are doing many things but cannot do justice to any of them. The child has no definite purpose or aim rather he is of a feeble mind. Changing frequently from one thing to another.
- Free from trouble or anxiety
- Free from anxiety or responsibility
Compare with: HEEDLESS: In attentive, unmindful, paying little attention. Unaffected by any sort of advice, warnings, but without understanding any consequences thereof. This usually found in teenagers who play little attention to the advice of elders and have a careless and happy-go-lucky-come attitude in life. As for a patient, who is suffering from cough and occasional blood spitting, and has been advised for an X-ray by the doctor, but pays no attention to this, so careless and does not understand the consequences.
NEGLECTING: Fail to care to give proper attention. This is a mental state in which the person does not do full justice to the work at hand and tend to be careless. This may lead to dislike and hatred for his occupation and individual.
22.CAREFULLNESS The quality of being careful, protective, watchful with steady attention. Exercising thoughtful supervision or making solicitous provisions.
These individuals cannot tolerate least imperfection in things arranged by them. He will check up the things again and again so that they are perfect.
Compare with: CAUTIOUS :Marked by prudent for thought to minimize the risk. Being alert, watchful, taking security measures, looking for guaranties. A cautious person shall not have anxiety. They have careful prudence to reduce the risk or damage by a reluctance to proceed or advance rashly in all his movements.
FASTIDIOUS: Very difficult to please marked by delicate in taste, meticulously attentive and demanding attitude. A person is so hard in his nature that nothing pleases him in regard to any work or taste either in home or in office. Even while taking to the doctor, he will not smile on matters, which other can laugh. He wants everything neat, clean and in order.
SCROUPULOUS. Characterized by having moral integrity and having principles. He may be guided by his conscience or principle of morals, which turn to inhibit any wrong action. Eg. A doctor who is so principled that even though given a chance to evade taxation, would not do so that his moral integrity can never be questioned. They are so vigilant and careful about their moral integrity that they are always ready to face any type of open enquires.
Marked by criticism or fault finding nature. They have an inclination to criticize or to discover faults and condemn others on social, moral and other grounds.
Even during the course of severe illness, he may criticize even his dearest friend for the misbehavior with him, although he might have been treated nicely. A common habit in such personalities.
Compare with: ABUSIVE : Person in the habit of employing harsh insulting languages. Such words are used by him as a routine .He may abuse the doctor who treated earlier. They have usually the habit of insulting people. Abusive may be a nature of a person or it can be a changed state without the involvement of any other faculty. But cursing is due to some provocation by some body or some provocative ideas.
Swearing. A lady after heated exchange with another lady make an oath to inflict a misfortune to another lady who was in confrontation with her.
CYNICAL. Contemptuously and bitterly mocking. They have a habit of laughing and ridiculing others, which may offend, hurt and humiliate others.
DICTATORIAL :Authoritative, people who dominate, they want to give others orders like a superior person or a leader. He does not submit or ask for something in a polite manner. Seen even in children where a child dictate terms to his parents.
CRITICAL. Tendency to judge or criticize harshly and adversely. They are inclined to criticize severely and unfavorably by finding faults and imperfections.
Disturbance of mind resulting from care, anxiety, worry, depression or distress of mind brought on by humiliation, hurt, pride, disappointment or consciousness of failures or errors.
Example : A girl who being tortured in by her in laws, is unable to express herself before anybody and this is constant problem. This condition is usually found in depression
Compare with: INDIGNATION :An intense deep felt resentment or anger aroused by annoyance or displeasure with an injustice or wrong they had suffered. When the principal has felt embarrassed for act of one of the student, which is very deeply felt by him and has a great resentment for it, with constant thinking in his mind but it has not come out. He has sleeplessness, pain, and turmoil etc. result from that. This is revealed by such persons after long questioning only.
MORTIFICATION :A feeling of shame, humiliation caused by something that wounds one’s pride or self-respect. Sensitive people get hurt and offended when their pride is wounded and this manifest as a disease.
REPROACHES. Aliments or suffering from a feeling of disappointment and disapproval – brought about from discredit, so they blame oneself for something. Example : An MD student had presented a seminar, which was really good but not approved by his boss or colleagues. This was felt so much by him that he had great feeling condemning himself because he could not get the approval of his boss or colleagues despite his best performance. He feels that this was great discredit to him and consequently he has some ailments. They lack self-confidence. This sort of people doubt their own ability and if something goes wrong at work in relationship they condemn themselves, thinking that it was their fault, always feel unfortunate.
Sate of utter confusion. A state of chaos where a person is utterly confused in his mind, he feels the urgency of doing something in the matter but is unable to start the course of action.
Compare with: CONFUSION ;The state of being unclear in mind. In this state the power to distinguish to choose decisively is lost and intellectual faculties are blunted. The persons is generally alright but whenever he sits for doing some calculation work gets confused and is unable to carry on that work.
Happy, being in good sprit
Even during the course of sickness a person is cheerful with a good mood and spirit arising from a carefree sanguine attitude and lively disposition.
During sickness generally we are not happy, but it become a special feature of these individuals, which they feel happy, or enlightened even during sickness.
Compare with: CONTENT :Satisfied and easy in mind. A person is cheerful and happy despite various sufferings or hurdles and has active interest in life.
EXHILARATION : Person feel inordinately happy, joyous without sufficient cause. An exaggerated feeling of pleasure which can be judged from the action of that person. Exaltation is in respect of the feelings a person is already having but Exhilaration is in general.
ECSTASY :A state of emotion so intense that one carried beyond thought and self-control as in sexual pleasure-orgasm. A state of excessive joy or happiness manifested either destructively or in profound calm or abstraction of mind. It is a trance state in which, there is intense absorption in divine matters appeared while loss of perception and voluntary control.
HIGH SPIRITED : Characterized by a bold, energetic feeling despite being placed in tense situation, It is the bold and courageous attitude one takes up towards the ups and downs one encountered in life. JESTING :Making merry by words or action. A disposition of cutting jokes, talking in such a manner that the persons who may be nearby cannot control their laughing. Even when attended by a doctor or in serious condition, he will start jesting with the doctor. These persons have the habit of making funny remarks or actions with the intention of amusing them.
In Exhilaration – One can understand the reason for the happiness or sadness. But in Ecstasy one cannot satisfy himself by way of reasoning.
The difference between cheerful and hilarity is that the former is satisfied and happy but the latter is not only cheerful but laughing with happiness.
27. CHILDISH BEHAVIOR
- Lacking maturity
- A mental condition in which a matured person behaves like a child.
- A matured person during the course of sickness becomes childish and he wants to play with toys or his action and desires are just like the ones found it children.
- It may be due to improper development of the brain or due to diseases
Compare with: FRIVOLOUS: Does not pay serious attention to anything, worth of any attention. Having no basis or laws in action. Person does not appreciate the serious nature of anything he comes in contact with – Inappropriately silly.
NAIVE: Lacking critical ability and analytical insight. Used for a person who is simple, trusting, plain and always takes things at their face value.
Aversion and desire
Some people would like remaining alone perpetually and are quite comfortable when alone, but some people would like to remain alone in certain peculiar circumstances only as in pregnancy and menstruation. They do not look at while talking to you
Various conditions related with company are studied under this rubric.
Compare with: RESERVED: Marked by a disposition to be restrained in words or action – self-restrained in behavior and expression.
They are introvert and never open out easily. They remain silent most of the time and do not show their main feeling readily. If he is asked a question he would reply in brief and whenever he is required to write anything he will try to write the minimum words
SECRETIVE: Reliably close mouthed, concealment of ones activities. A tendency to maintain privacy in all affairs of life. He conceals events or incidents from close friends. They never outwardly express their feelings. He is so secretive in his nature that whatever he has faced in his life or events taken place in his life, he would not like to share with anyone. When he goes to physician he does not tell him about his previous illness or the real problem faced by him mentally
SULKY: Silent, inactive and unsociable from resentment. When the person is dejected or unhappy and wishes to protest silently he will sit up himself refusing to talk or joke with people around him. He does not try to mix up with people or any exchange of ideas. If he goes somewhere, he will talk only to the extent of his purpose served.
The person is gloomy or depressed, he wants to be left alone, and he dislikes any company and prefers to be quiet- a state of depression.
Concern for the sufferings of another, with inclination to give aid or support. They are very caring and go out of their way to help people who are suffering.
Inclined to show mercy or give aid
Compare with: BENEVOLENCE: Tendency to do charitable and generous acts. A mental disposition to do good, to love mankind and promote the welfare of others. They are always ready to help others even at the cost of their health. They help the poor individuals, orphans , even though they personally may have to undergo hardships- a rubric for Mother Teresa
An expression of feeling of dissatisfaction, resentment or pain
Expressing protest over something caused by somebody, over some dissatisfaction usually without a threat but expecting some sympathy or redresses.
Example – A person is brought to a doctor and apart from other complaints, the relatives of patient tell to the doctor, that he is making too many complaints on one pretext or the other.
Compare with: LAMENTING. An earnest request in grief – An expression of sorrow, suffering by request or suggesting as in great need of help, which may not be so urgent. Requesting in a most respectful manner to others and to the doctor for some better arrangement for his treatment, even though it is milder.
MOANING. Making a low prolonged sound due to grief or pain. They give an expression of pain or sorrow in a prolonged audible sound during sickness, which is demonstrated by this type of voices. They have the habit of complaining to others even though their suffering is minimal or of no great consequences. WAILING. . To make high pitched prolonged sound suggestive of a cry. When father has beaten a noisy child, he started wailing in a complaining manner as if he has been beaten wrongly. Some children are not brought up in a correct manner, are used to make lot of demands, their wishes are always met, if by chance the parents are unable to fulfill his desires, the child may cry out in a mournful, high pitched voice
- A forceful obsession to do something
- Caused by obsession or compulsion usually found in OCN
- An irresistible impulse to behave in a certain way
Compare with: Fanaticism A state of mind wherein a person is intolerant of any views or concepts, which differ from his own– an unreasonable wild and extravagant notion on one subject- religion or politics. A patient talking to the doctor show so much attachment with his views on a particular subject that he has no care whether there is cure or not, but he is adamant on that particular point.
Rigidity – Firmly adhering to an opinion or purpose they are inflexible and unyielding
Lack of feeling or consciousness of reliance on oneself to perform an act under a particular condition or circumstance necessitating his attention.
When a person is asked to perform a job, when he intends to do it, he has dual train of thoughts in his mind, whether he should do it in this or that way.
But some may not have the confidence to perform the job entrusted to him.
Compare with : Cowardice : Cannot face situation where expected. A person is so much weak in his mind that he cannot face a situation where others can easily succeed. The mere thought of facing a situation makes him desperate
IRRESOLUTION: A person who cannot make up his mind and is in turmoil when asked to make a selection or indicate his choice. He may also change his decision frequently. A person is so much undecided in his mind that whenever he has undertaken any work he will think whether he should do that or not sure of the consequences if he undertakes a job.
Telling something confidentially, to tell private matter in confidence.
Person in the habit of doing so are generally having fear in the mind.
An individual out of some provocation in his mind consider it is necessary that the secret of his disease or the circumstances faced by him may be conveyed to someone in confidence.
Compare with: SECRETIVE: Reliably close mouthed, concealment of one’s activities. A tendency to maintain privacy in all affairs of life.
Tendency to express or assert the opposite
Disposition – A tendency to oppose or contradict the speech, actions or versions of anybody with arguments and by using his intellect. Such persons have no questioning of their own opinion but they are used to contradict others.
A patient while talking to the doctor does not accept the diagnosis and advances certain arguments, as it is his nature to contradict.
Intolerant of – persons who cannot tolerate any contradiction to what they have said. This intolerance is not supported by anger.
If the doctor has asked any question for the second time he will not tolerate it and say, “ I have already replied to this question”. Despite this he does not get angry.
Boldness to such an extent that one can do something despite any amount of apposition or challenge by any authority or apposing force.
Showing open resistance.
They defy normal rules and regulations, they do whatever they things is best irrespective of what others say despite repeated advises or warnings.
Defiant will not come in direct conflict,
Contemptuous shall come for direct conflict.
36. EMOTIONAL excitement
Easily affected by emotions, by taking, looking at some thing or hearing something, somebody become emotional and start weeping or gets excited.
A lady while narrating the circumstances she has faced in her life and while remembering her suffering start weeping or become sad and weeping.
Sentimental is closing to emotional, but the degree sensitivity is difference. A person who is sentimental is more sensitive and will not be excited like an emotional person.
- Resentful desire for another’s possession or advantages.
- This felt when a person desiring something is deprived of it and seems another person’s having those things which he has launched for
- A desire to achieve some prosperity or some possession, which others are, have
- Envy is more positive
- Jealousy is more negative
- A jealousy having malignant feeling his neighbor has purchased a car even if he is having it. The prosperity of other is not tolerable.
- According docks & kocklenberg, Envy is more materialistic but jealousy is more sexual.
Marked by force and violent of movement or action, impulsively vehement in feeling.
This is found in persons who tend to do things abruptly in an impulsive manner without any thought of consequences. They behaves or acting in such a way that he is extra ordinary in a hurry or impatient to get his work done. They will be using much force in all his routine affairs.
- In Hurry – a person wants to do things in a haste and there is no excitement.
- In Impatience, The persons is mentally restless
- In Impetuous – He is violent in achieving his goal
A conscious subjective state of mind. A representation of feeling which may be good, bad, changeable or alternating
Alternating – The mental state is very difficult to be predicted because on the one moment he looked very pleasing and other moment he seems to be morose.
CHANGEABLE – It is less strong than alternating. It is been changeable, feeling fine one day, little bit fine in the next day
Alternating means positive or negative black and white, fine and angry.
40. NIGHT TERROR
Fearful dream child awake frightened – cannot remember in the event, occur in early part of night
Nightmare – occur in last part of the night, awake frightened, and remember the events
In both case observer find the patient is frightened.
41. PLANS making many
This individuals have a habit of wanting to do many things which is not always practical or possible
The person is desirous or expanding his present business for a while he will make many statements, charts, graphs or other things although he may not implement them.
In Theorizing – The person has no definite plan, statement, graph etc. but he makes castles in the airway, but it is not so in plans making many.
42. RIDICULOUS action
Uncertain foolish action.
Action designed to excite laughter with some degree of contempt, mockery.
The person is in the habit of making funny motion by any part of his body inviting the attention of others, but without having a very good and sensible aspect on it.
Gestures are involuntary movement of the organs of the person, but ridiculous action – not such the action presented may be deliberate, yet this is to be considered in that very rubric
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