AAPAM Award for Best Student Essay
By: Julie Muia, Progamme Assistant
During one of my inaugural graduate classes, my professor made a strange remark “Universities do not offer solutions to world problems!” My area of concern is International Relations in the field of peace and conflict resolution, which in retrospect, set the pace for the entire programme, so I set out to understand the East African Community (EAC). EAC was first established in 1967 after the signing of a tripartite agreement by presidents from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda; it collapsed soon after in 1977, ushering the rebirth of the EAC in July 2000, following the process of ratification and deposit of the instruments of ratification with the Secretary General. Rwanda and Burundi became full members of EAC in 2008.
The concept of regional integration in Africa was mainly for the purposes of economic cooperation geared towards development. Accordingly, the vision of EAC is to have a prosperous, competitive, secure, stable and politically united East Africa; with a mission, to widen and deepen Economic, Political, Social and Culture integration in order to improve the quality of life of the people of East Africa, by increasing competitiveness, value added production, trade and investments. To this extent the EAC members established four pillars of integration; Customs Union (2005), a Common Market (2010), Monetary Union and ultimately, Political Federation. Each pillar is governed under a protocol i.e. the common markets protocol, according to the treaty, member states have Four (4) years to complete each pillar,
Membership, according to Article (3) of the EAC treaty, states are eligible to join the Community once they fulfil requirements such as:
•Adherence to universally acceptable principles of good governance, democracy, the rule of law, observance of human rights and social justice;
•Potential to contribute towards the strengthening of integration within the East African region;
•Geographical proximity to and inter-dependence between it and the Partner States;
•Establish and maintain a market driven economy.
The East African Community (EAC) has recognised that stability and security in the region are prerequisites for successful integration. Previous experiences with conflicts in the member states and spillover effects in neighboring states have shown that development of the entire region can be hampered or even thwarted by a national crisis of one of its members. Conflict- a constant variable - that continues to generate interest, creates the opportunity to identify how structures can be transformed into constituting incentives for collective as opposed to unilateral action. Post conflict- states such as Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, DRC and Ethiopia have applied for membership to EAC, the then Chairman of EAC in 2012, H.E. Mwai Kibaki welcomed the states interest as the Community sought to deepen and widen integration; which is vital to EAC’s survival. South Sudan applied for membership to the Community in 2011, in 2013, South Sudan made alignment strides by sending a high level mission to the EAC Secretariat in Arusha, Tanzania, showing signs that it was likely to become the 6th member of EAC. The application status is to be revealed in 2014.
The Common Regional Public Goods (CRPG) model calls for a convergence of regional, state and local-regionalized interest on security and foreign policy; the underlying logic behind CRPG is to use the common demands for security and development as imperatives for integration, therefore projects such as the Lamu Port Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport (LAPSET) and the Standard gauge railway line in East Africa are some of the projects set to cement regional integration.
While the treaty is clear on the requirements needed to join EAC there is a need to play a more active role in rehabilitating post-conflict countries and fast tracking their economic and social agenda to ensure that the mandate of deepening and widening integration is achieved.
JOINTCOMMUNIQUÉ: 18TH ORDINARY SUMMIT OF HEADS OF STATE OF THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
Posted in Communiqué
- THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY HEADS OF STATE, THEIR EXCELLENCIES PRESIDENT YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA AND CHAIRPERSON OF THE SUMMIT, PRESIDENT DR. JOHN POMBE JOSEPH MAGUFULI OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, DEPUTY PRESIDENT WILLIAM RUTO OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA, 1ST VICE PRESIDENT HIS EXCELLENCY GASTON SINDIMWO OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI, HON. FRANCOIS KANIMBA, MINISTER OF TRADE, INDUSTRY AND EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY AFFAIRS REPRESENTING HIS EXCELLENCY PRESIDENT PAUL KAGAME OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA, AND HON. AGGREY TISA SABUNI, ECONOMIC ADVISOR TO THE PRESIDENT REPRESENTING HIS EXCELLENCY PRESIDENT SALVA KIIR MAYARDIT, PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN HELD THE 18TH ORDINARY SUMMIT MEETING OF THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY HEADS OF STATE ON 20TH MAY, 2017 IN DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA.
- THE HEADS OF STATE COMMENDED THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA FOR CHAIRING THE AFFAIRS OF THE COMMUNITY FOR THE PAST TWO YEARS AND WELCOMED THE NEW CHAIRPERSON, HIS EXECELLENCY PRESIDENT YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA.
- THE HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT MET IN A WARM AND CORDIAL ATMOSPHERE.
- THE HEADS OF STATE RECEIVED THE ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS FOR THE PERIOD 1ST DECEMBER 2015 TO 18TH MAY 2017, AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO RESOLVE THE OUTSTANDING ISSUES AND REPORT PROGRESS TO THE 19TH SUMMIT.
- THE HEADS OF STATE CONSIDERED A REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREVIOUS DECISIONS OF THE SUMMIT AND NOTED THE PROGRESS. THE SUMMIT DIRECTED PARTNER STATES AND THE SECRETARIAT TO IMPLEMENT THE OUTSTANDING DECISIONS AND THE PARTNER STATES TO DEPOSIT WITH THE SECRETARY GENERAL INSTRUMENTS OF RATIFICATION OF OUTSTANDING PROTOCOLS BY 30TH NOVEMBER 2017.
- THE HEADS OF STATE NOTED WITH CONCERN THE DECLINING INTRA-EAC TRADE AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO RESOLVE THE LONG-OUTSTANDING NON-TARIFF BARRIERS AND REPORT TO THE 19TH SUMMIT.
- THE HEADS OF STATE NOTED THAT THE REMAINING PARTNER STATES THAT HAVE NOT SIGNED THE EU-EAC ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT (EPA) ARE NOT IN A POSITION TO DO SO PENDING CLARIFICATION OF ISSUES THEY HAVE IDENTIFIED IN THE AGREEMENT. IT WAS HOWEVER AGREED THAT DUE TO THIS ACTION KENYA SHOULD NOT BE DISADVANTAGED SINCE SHE HAS ALREADY SIGNED THE AGREEMENT. IN VIEW OF THIS DECISION, THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA AS THE NEW CHAIR OF THE SUMMIT, WAS MANDATED WITHIN ONE MONTH TO REACH OUT TO THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU) TO COMMUNICATE THE EAC CIRCUMSTANCES. IN THE EVENT THAT AN ACCEPTABLE WAY FORWARD IS NOT REACHED WITH THE EU WITHIN THE NEXT SIX MONTHS, THE CHAIRPERSON WAS AUTHORISED TO EXPLORE THE USE OF VARIABLE GEOMETRY IN IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EPA BY EAC PARTNER STATES WORKING WITH THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. THE SUMMIT ALSO AGREED THAT THE EU SANCTIONS ON BURUNDI SHOULD BE DISCUSSED ALONGSIDE THE EPA DISCUSSIONS.
- THE HEADS OF STATE NOTED THE PROGRESS ON THE ISSUE OF SUSTAINABLE FINANCING MECHANISM FOR THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY AND DIRECTED THE MINISTERS OF FINANCE TO MEET AND FINALIZE WORK ON THE MODALITIES REQUIRED TO ESTABLISH A SUSTAINABLE FINANCING MECHANISM FOR THE COMMUNITY AND REPORT TO THE 19TH SUMMIT.
- THE HEADS OF STATE DELIBERATED ON THE EAC POLITICAL FEDERATION AND NOTED THE COUNCIL’S RECOMMENDATIONS. THE HEADS OF STATE ADOPTED THE POLITICAL CONFEDERATION AS A TRANSITIONAL MODEL OF THE EAST AFRICAN POLITICAL FEDERATION AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO CONSTITUTE A TEAM OF CONSTITUTIONAL EXPERTS TO DRAFT THE CONSTITUTION FOR THE POLITICAL CONFEDERATION AND REPORT TO THE 19TH SUMMIT.
- THE SUMMIT APPOINTED ENG. STEPHEN DAUDI MALEKELA MLOTE FROM THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA AS DEPUTY SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY FOR A THREE YEAR TERM WITH EFFECT FROM 20TH MAY 2017.
- THE HEADS OF STATE COMMENDED DR. ENOS S. BUKUKU, THE OUTGOING DEPUTY SECRETARY GENERAL AND WISHED HIM WELL IN HIS FUTURE ENDEAVOURS.
- THE HEADS OF STATE, PURSUANT TO ARTICLE 24 (2) OF THE TREATY FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY, APPOINTED JUSTICE DR. CHARLES OYO NYAWELLO, FROM THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN AS JUDGE TO THE FIRST INSTANCE DIVISION OF THE EAST AFRICAN COURT OF JUSTICE AND PRESIDED OVER HIS SWEARING IN CEREMONY.
- THE HEADS OF STATE CONSIDERED A REPORT ON THE ROADMAP FOR THE ACCELERATED INTEGRATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN INTO THE EAC AND NOTED THE STEADY PROGRESS OF THE INTEGRATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN INTO THE COMMUNITY.
- THE HEADS OF STATE RECEIVED THE PROGRESS REPORT ON THE EAC INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW AND NOTED THAT PHASE ONE OF THE INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW WAS BEING IMPLEMENTED AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO EXPEDITE ITS FULL IMPLEMENTATION AND REPORT TO THE 19TH SUMMIT.
- THE HEADS OF STATE RECEIVED A REPORT ON THE VERIFICATION FOR THE ADMISSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOMALIA INTO THE EAC. THE SUMMIT DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO FOLLOW-UP ON THE MATTER AND REPORT TO THE 19TH SUMMIT.
- THE HEADS OF STATE RECEIVED A PROGRESS REPORT ON THE MODALITIES FOR PROMOTION OF MOTOR VEHICLE ASSEMBLY IN THE REGION AIMED AT REDUCING THE IMPORTATION OF USED MOTOR VEHICLES FROM OUTSIDE THE COMMUNITY AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO FINALIZE THE MATTER AND REPORT TO THE 19TH SUMMIT.
- THE HEADS OF STATE RECEIVED A PROGRESS REPORT ON THE REVIEW OF THE TEXTILE AND LEATHER SECTOR WITH A VIEW TO DEVELOPING A STRONG AND COMPETITIVE DOMESTIC SECTOR THAT GIVES CONSUMERS BETTER CHOICE THAN IMPORTED USED TEXTILE AND FOOTWEAR AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO FINALIZE THE MATTER AND REPORT TO THE 19TH SUMMIT.
- THE HEADS OF STATE ASSENTED TO THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY CUSTOMS MANAGEMENT (AMMENDMENT) BILL 2016, THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY SUPPLEMENTARY APPROPRIATION BILL 2016, AND THE EAC APPROPRIATION BILL 2016.
- THE HEADS OF STATE PRESENTED AWARDS TO THE WINNERS OF THE EAC STUDENTS ESSAY COMPETITION, 2016 AND COMMENDED THE STUDENTS FOR THEIR INTEREST IN THE INTEGRATION AGENDA.
- THE HEADS OF STATE DECLARED THE EAC AS A COMMON HIGHER EDUCATION AREA IN ORDER TO HARMONIZE AND ENHANCE THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION IN THE REGION. THE HEADS OF STATE DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO OPERATIONALIZE THE TRANSFORMATION.
- THE HEADS OF STATE RECEIVED A PROGRESS REPORT FROM H.E. BENJAMIN WILLIAM MKAPA, THE FACILITATOR OF THE INTER-BURUNDI DIALOGUE AND THANKED HIM FOR HIS COMMITMENT TO THE DIALOGUE. THE SUMMIT FULLY ENDORSED THE ASSESSMENT AND ADOPTED THE REPORT.
- THE HEADS OF STATE RECEIVED AN UPDATE AND CLARIFICATIONS FROM THE 1ST VICE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI ON THE POLITICAL SITUATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI AND THE INTER-BURUNDI DIALOGUE.
- THEIR EXCELLENCIES PRESIDENT YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA, DEPUTY PRESIDENT WILLIAM RUTO OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA, 1ST VICE PRESIDENT HIS EXCELLENCY GASTON SINDIMWO OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI, HON. FRANCOIS KANIMBA, MINISTER OF TRADE, INDUSTRY AND EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY AFFAIRS OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA, AND HON. AGGREY TISA SABUNI, ECONOMIC ADVISOR TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN THANKED THEIR HOST, HIS EXCELLENCY PRESIDENT DR. JOHN POMBE JOSEPH MAGUFULI OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, FOR THE WARM WELCOME AND HOSPITALITY ACCORDED TO THEM AND THEIR RESPECTIVE DELEGATIONS DURING THEIR STAY IN DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA.
Done at Dar es Salaam, Tanzania this 20th day of May 2017