This is Marcel Duchamp's Bicycle Wheel.
Duchamp created it in 1913, and it has been in has been in MoMA's collection for
almost 50 years.
It looks a lot like a bicycle wheel on a stool because it's a bicycle
wheel on a stool.
>> But more interesting than the way it looks is the ideas
associated with this work.
>> It was one of many works Deschamp called readymades.
A shovel, a bottle rack, a hat rack, a coat rack, and a bicycle wheel.
Art is handmade by the artist.
It's a normal bicycle wheel.
It's a normal stool.
These are all ready-made objects.
Art is beautiful.
If you want to look at a bicycle wheel upside-down stuck in a stool and
find that beautiful, it's possible.
[SOUND] But I think we're on the wrong track.
Duchamp in fact criticized so many modern artists as being, in his words, retinal,
in other words, eye candy, something to look at.
>> And if you introduce your taste you go back to the old ideals of taste,
and taste is the great enemy of art, A-R-T.
>> Of course, Duchamp's own taste is critical here.
Duchamp's a troublemaker.
We're talking about an artist who questions every single aspect
of everything that is stated as a fact.
>> Duchamp was forcing the art world to define what was art.
His readymades paved the way for modern art for decades.
20 years after Duchamp tried to shock the art world with a bicycle wheel,
Meret Oppenheim was about to do the same with a tea cup.
In 1936 after having tea with Pablo Picasso, and Dora Maar,
Meret Oppenheim returns to her studio and creates this.
>> This object was created at sort of this perfect storm moment.
There were all these artists looking at the world in a totally new way.
>> Oppenheim, a 22 year old art student had already caught the attention of
Andrea Baton the founder of Surrealism.
Baton and the Surrealists believed there was a crisis.
Society had become stuck.
They believed surrealism could shock people out of the limits of reality.
As Breton put it, we must not hesitate to bewilder sensation.
An iron with nails, a metronome with an eye, a fur covered teacup.
>> The idea that if you alter an object,
it alters your perception of what that object is.
>> Oppenheim's teacup was viewed as threatening, repulsive.
A woman even fainted.
Breton declared it the perfect surrealist object.
Oppenheim claimed, it was a fluke.
I had been making fur-covered jewelry to make a little money.
I showed a piece to Picasso and Dora Maar,
and they joked that anything could be covered in fur.
Today, Meret Oppenheim's fluke remains the definitive surrealist object.
He called it Bed because it was his quilt and pillow.
It was called art because it was on the wall.
Painting relates to both art and life.
I try to act in the gap between the two.
Critics didn't know what to call it.
Was it a painting?
Was it a sculpture?
Rauschenberg ended up calling it a combine.
>> It was the economy, I didn't have anything to paint on.
[LAUGH] >> Rauschenberg painted on quilts,
pillows, newspapers, bald eagles, garbage, pictures.
He helped art to be more than just paint on a canvas.
Now it could be, well, a bed on a wall.
Bed, object,and a bicycle wheel.
Transforming everyday objects.
В условиях, когда пользователи были убеждены, что закодированные с помощью компьютера сообщения не поддаются расшифровке - даже усилиями всемогущего АНБ, - секреты потекли рекой. Наркобароны, боссы, террористы и люди, занятые отмыванием криминальных денег, которым надоели перехваты и прослушивание их переговоров по сотовым телефонам, обратились к новейшему средству мгновенной передачи сообщений по всему миру - электронной почте. Теперь, считали они, им уже нечего было опасаться, представ перед Большим жюри, услышать собственный записанный на пленку голос как доказательство давно забытого телефонного разговора, перехваченного спутником АНБ.