Followership is a term used to describe the actions of someone in a subordinate role. It can also be considered as a specific set of skills that complement leadership, a role within a hierarchical organization, a social construct that is integral to the leadership process, or the behaviours engaged in while interacting with leaders in an effort to meet organizational objectives. In organizations, “leadership is not just done by the leader, and followership is not just done by followers.” 
The study of followership is an emerging area within the leadership field that helps explain outcomes. Specifically, followers play important individual, relational, and collective roles in organizational failures and successes. “If leaders are to be credited with setting the vision for the department or organization and inspiring followers to action, then followers need to be credited with the work that is required to make the vision a reality.”
The term follower can be used as a personality type, as a position in a hierarchy, as a role, or as a set of traits and behaviors. Studies of followership have produced various theories including trait, behavioral attributes, role, and constructionist theories in addition to exploring myths or misunderstandings about followership.
Followership in organizations
In the military
Military perspectives on good followership includes behaviors such as: knows themselves and seeks self-improvement, is technically and tactically proficient, complies with orders and initiates appropriate actions in the absence of orders, develops a sense of responsibility and takes responsibility for own actions, makes sound and timely decisions or recommendations, sets the example for others, is familiar with their leader and his job, and anticipates his requirements, keeps leader informed, understands the task and ethically accomplishes it, a team member, not a yes man. The U.S. Army has produced a new military doctrine called mission command that highlights the role of followers. It acknowledges one of Colin Powell’s principles of leadership that “the commander in the field is always right and the rear echelon is wrong, unless proven otherwise” Mission command doctrine was conceived from a wartime environment that enables followers in the field to act according to the dictates of the situation on the ground, giving them maximum discretion. In order to exercise mission command appropriately, commanders must embrace the principles of followership to succeed.
In the nursing profession
It is vital to understand that, without effective followers in nursing, our leaders face severe limitations. Current leaders and educators must share and promote the vision of enlightened followership if nursing is to achieve its potential. Research suggests that there is significant difference in organizational effectiveness among nurses with different followership styles – passive, alienated, conformist, pragmatist, or effective.
In education and the classroom
The appearance of followership in mainstream leadership education books has become more commonplace, including the works of Kouzes & Posner (2012), Jackson & Parry (2011), and Hurwitz & Hurwitz (2015)
Effective followership training in the classroom is challenging because of media messages that preference leadership, internal schemas held by students that ignore followership, and cultural biases against it. Undergraduate and graduate students have been resistant to the idea of followership and followership has been interpreted as leadership poorly enacted or as settling for a lesser position. In recent years, attitudes have begun to change and students have noted that following is an expected, healthy part of a reciprocal relationship in social media and that it did not carry negative connotations.
Although a student’s contribution in the classroom has such high significance, the college admissions system has yet to find a way to recognize and reward students who have continuously made these contributions. Given that outstanding classroom contributions have been ignored, yet play such a vital role, it is the responsibility of the college admissions system to find a way to identify them.
In the Franchise business model
Followership, as defined by Hurwitz (2008), is “accepting or enabling [italics original] the goal achievement of one’s leader” (p. 11). In the context of franchising, the franchisee could be seen as a follower because he or she accepts the franchisor’s business idea and enables the franchisor’s goal achievement through the individual franchise operations. Leaders can begin by building organizational value for followers and followership; value is a process of incorporating the concept of followership into the organization’s culture, policies, and practices. Because leaders [franchisors] have followers [franchisees] it is their responsibility to set a vision, build trust, and inspire the followers with passion and hope.
In the hospitality industry
In hospitality and tourism, being an effective follower is important for achieving the service-oriented goals of many operations. In hospitality operations it is often important for followers to work independently of their leaders to carry out important tasks. It has been suggested that incorporating followership into training and education in intentional, purposeful ways could assist operations in hospitality and tourism.
The Followership Learning Community (FLC) is a learning community within the International Leadership Organization (ILA) and is “dedicated to the development of knowledge, competencies, and programs concerning the leader-follower relationship. It is the first such academic or practice community devoted to the study of followership. It focuses on research, collaboration, and dissemination of ideas and information”. The current priorities of the FLC are to:
- Help advance followership to a mainstream idea
- Generate greater interest in followership studies
- Develop a network of scholars who focus on leader-follower relationships
- Create a practitioner network of consultants/leaders who employ leader-follower best practices
- Support scholars and practitioners seeking to learn more about followership
Different models of followership
|Robert Kelley||According to Kelley, effective followers are individuals who are enthusiastic, intelligent, ambitious, and self-reliant. Kelley identified two underlying behavioral dimensions that distinguish types of followers. The first behavioral dimension is the degree to which the individual is an independent, critical thinker. The second dimension is the degree to which the individual is active or passive. Depending on where a person falls on these two dimensions, there are five different follower types: |
|Ira Chaleff||Chaleff’s original model of Courageous Followership proposed four dimensions in which courageous followers operates within a group, and a fifth dimension in which the follower operates either within or outside the group depending on the response of the leadership. The dimensions of courageous followership are: |
|Barbara Kellerman||Barbara Kellerman categorized followers as isolates, bystanders, participants, activists, and diehards based on their level of engagement in the leadership process. |
|Hurwitz & Hurwitz||The Generative Partnership Model ® comprises five guiding principles, five skill pairings, and an array of associated behaviors. The guiding principles are at the core of every partnership, team, and organization, providing a framework on which the skills are used. The skills come in matched pairs: each of the five skill pairings involves a multitude of associated behaviors. The behaviors could be considered best practice, but are better considered adaptive and adaptable. |
Hurwitz and Hurwitz described these five skills of good followership:
The five complementary areas of leadership skill are:
|Boas Shamir||Shamir looks at the different types of leader-follower theoretical perspectives rather than developing a specific model of positive followership. |
|Coyne & Coyne||Coyne and Coyne (2007) proposed seven desirable followership actions from the perspective of a CEO and his or her direct reports: |
|Jimmy Collins||Jimmy L.S. Collins, retired President and COO of Chick-fil-A, an Atlanta, Georgia USA, based Quick Service Restaurant franchise, refers to his philosophy as Creative Followership. He wrote that being a follower is an active role requiring a great deal of creativity, personal initiative, and the ability to execute tasks with excellence. The process begins with identifying a leader worth following. Even so, when Collins’ suggests that people choose their boss, he gives credibility to followers as more than merely people who work for someone. Rather, he proposes that followers have skills, ideas, and energies that complement those of the leader. As a result, a relationship is created in which leaders and followers are able to achieve much more than each individual could have accomplished alone.|
|Susan Cain||Susan Cain (2017) states that, “Our elite schools over emphasize leadership partly because they’re preparing students for the corporate world, and they assume that this is what businesses need and what leads to personal success. But a discipline in organizational psychology , called “followership” is gaining in popularity.” |
|Adam Grant||The most frequent questions he is asked by people is how to contribute when they are not in charge but have suggestions and want to be heard. He calls these “fundamental questions of followership."|
|Krista Kleiner||Kleiner proposes that colleges focus on followership skills and contributions. In short, college admission officers need to place less emphasis on students’ acquisition of leadership titles throughout high school and place more emphasis on understanding the domain that has been central to their lives—the classroom learning environment and their contributions to it. If teachers encouraged followership, she posits, they would find ways of improving their classes and also contribute to their students’ becoming both good leaders and followers. By helping students do this, teachers are helping the future working generation of Americans develop skills critical not only to the workplace but to our society as a whole.|
Looking backward and forward
A brief history of followership
The relationship between leader/follower is ancient and is referenced throughout history. Examples of leader/follower partnerships are present in the great literatures and wisdom traditions of China such as the I Ching (1000-750 BC), India, and the aboriginal myths of Africa, Australia and the Native Peoples of North and South America. The best known advice from ancient philosophers came from Aristotle who believed, “He who cannot be a good follower cannot be a leader.” In his time, Aristotle perceived that followership was necessary, albeit mainly as a precursor to what he considered to be a more important role: leader.
Baldasar Castiglione wrote about followers, following and followership in The Book of the Courtier in 1516. During Japan’s Edo or Tokugawa period (1603–1868), the Samurai were a class of followers – the very name samurai meant those who served.
In the modern era, followership research began with Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933) who believed that all individuals, regardless of their place in society, deserved respect. She wanted to give more power to individuals and ensure that individuals’ voices were not only heard but were also integrated into solutions. Not only were many of her ideas rejected in the 1930s and 1940s, later theorists also paid limited recognition to her work. Follett’s writings have also been underappreciated in contemporary research, despite the fact that her work served as a prelude to many of the developments in the management literature and are still considered timely and insightful by many. Management theorist Warren Bennis said of Follett's work, "Just about everything written today about leadership and organizations comes from Mary Parker Follett's writings and lectures." 
Followership research continued in 1955 when Hollander and Webb (1955) argued that leader and follower was not an either/or proposition in which leaders and followers were found at opposite ends of a continuum. They proposed that the qualities associated with leadership and followership were interdependent. Zelaznik published work in 1964 that focused on the leader-follower relationship by considering the dimensions of dominance vs. submissiveness and activity vs. passivity. Followers have been largely neglected in the study of leadership, an omission addressed by Robert Kelley in his seminal 1988 Harvard Business Review article “In Praise of Followers”. Kelley subsequently wrote The Power of Followership (1992), which preceded and influenced Chaleff (1995), Potter, et al. (1996), Thody (2000), Meilinger (2001), Latour and Rast (2004), Kellerman, (2007), Bossily (2007), and Hurwitz & Hurwitz (2015).
In 1994 the W.K. Kellogg Foundation provided a four year grant to study leadership that attracted 50 practitioners and scholars to “shed light on some of the most compelling topics in the field.” Three focus groups emerged from the Kellogg Leadership Studies Project (KLSP), one being the Leadership and Followership Focus Group. The conveners of this group were Ed Hollander and Lynn Offermann who published a bound collection of papers called The Balance of Leadership & Followership.
The next major organized activity to bring scholars and practitioners together on the subject of followership occurred in 2008 at Claremont University, chaired by Jean Lipman-Blumen of the Peter Drucker and Mastoshi Ito Graduate School of Management , Ron Riggio of the Kravis Leadership Center and Ira Chaleff, author of The Courageous Follower. Participants included researchers and practitioners mentioned in this article including Robert Kelley, Barbara Kellerman and others. In addition to focusing on the elevating aspects of followership, research was introduced on the problematic aspects of followership including the work of Thomas Blass on the famous Stanley Milgram experiments on obedience and by Jean Lipman-Blumen on why we follow toxic leaders. The book of essays by conference contributors, The Art of Followership, was published as part of the Warren Bennis Leadership Series with a forward by James McGregor Burns.
Participants in the KLSP went on to form the International Leadership Association (ILA) as a vehicle for keeping the dialogue alive. Similarly, participants in the Claremont conference went on to form the Followership Learning Community within the ILA with Ira Chaleff as its first chair. Both of these entities are continuing with this work.
Additional areas of followership that have been studied include:
- Upwards impression management – influencing management through persuasion and other tactics,
- Organizational citizenship behaviors – examples of this include civic virtue, sportsmanship, or helping others,
- Proactive personality theory – the idea that people can influence and shape their own environment,
- Leader-member exchange or LMX – the interchange and relationships between a leader and follower.
Missing from the present research are additional critical components of followership such as the ability to convert strategies into actions that deliver on the actual intent.
The future of followership
Followership theory offers promise for reinvigorating leadership research in rich new ways:
- Moves beyond leader-centric views to recognize the importance of follower roles and following behaviors making the leadership process more inclusive.
- Distributes responsibility for constructing leadership and its outcomes to all players in the leadership process.
- Focuses us on identifying more and less effective followership behaviors.
- Embeds context within the leadership process.
- Recognizes that leadership can flow in all directions, e.g., not only downward but also upward in a hierarchy when subordinates engage in leading behaviors.
- Allows us to understand why and how managers are not always effective leaders, such as when they are unable to co-construct leadership with their subordinates.
- Promotes followership development, not just leadership development.
Robert Kelley proposes seven areas for further followership research:1. World Events 2. Culture 3. Leader(ship)
4. Follower qualities
5. Role of the Follower
6. Language of followership
7. Courageous Conscience
He challenges the field to focus followership research more on “the big issues happening in the world” such as suicide bombers, religious fundamentalism, democratically elected dictators and corporate abuses of power.
Chaleff calls for a similar focus for research on susceptibility to extremism and the use and development of assessments to help people understand their own tendencies in order to pre-empt their expression in the presence of toxic leaders.
Academic followership theories
|Trait||Identifies key traits and their relationship with strong followership. Zaleznik, 1964 (Dominance vs. submissiveness; Activity vs. passivity), Kelley, 1992 (Active engagement; Independent thinking), Chaleff, 1995 (Courage), Potter, et al., 1996 (Relationship initiative; Performance initiative), Kellerman, 2007 (Engagement)|
|Behavioral Attribute||Directly lists the behavioral attributes of good followers. Kelley (1988), Hurwitz & Hurwitz (2015)|
|Role Based Approaches||Role-based views consider how individuals enact leadership and followership in the context of hierarchical roles. The primary purpose is to advance understanding of how subordinates work with managers in ways that contribute to or detract from leadership and organizational outcomes.|
|Constructionism||Investigates how people interact and engage together in social and relational contexts to construct (or not construct) leadership and followership.|
|Distributed Leadership & Followership||Distributed leadership starts with the perspective many people can take on a leadership role, not just those with formal power and authority. Leadership and followership can move from person to person as the dialogue twists and turns. Not only are team members challenged to enact followership and leadership roles effectively, but they must be able to switch between the roles. Generally speaking, however, distributed leadership theories focus exclusively on the leadership role.|
|Leader-Member Exchange Theory||The focus in LMX theory is on how leaders and followers engage together to generate high quality work relationships that allow them to produce effective leadership outcomes. While LMX theory does acknowledge followers in the relational process, it is still more leadership – than followership – focused in that it privileges the leader as the driver of the relationship-building process.|
|Implicit Followership Theories||Follower-centric approaches arose in response to leader-centric views and drew attention to the role of the follower in constructing leaders and leadership. Implicit followership research proposes that leaders’ beliefs for follower behavior influence the extent to which followership is effective; followers who behave as expected will be more successful. They use these schemas to encode followership information, which serves as essential elements of organizational sensemaking.|
Other behavioral traits of effective followership that have been proposed include: a belief in the importance of being a good follower, looks beyond themselves, values their own independence, follows while offering up ideas, self-motivated and self-directed, displays loyalty, considers integrity of paramount importance, functions well in change-oriented environments, functions well on teams, thinks independently and critically, gets involved, generates ideas, willing to collaborate, willing to lead initiatives, develops leaders and themselves, stays current, anticipates, drives own growth, and is a player for all seasons.
Myths and misconceptions about followership
The traditional notion that leaders are active and followers are passive is mistaken and contributes to misconceptions about the organizational functions of superiors and subordinates. Behaviorists now recognize that active followers influence leaders at every level of the hierarchy, and that leadership itself is a process, not a person.
There are many myths about followership:
- It is a lesser role.
- It is just preparation for being a leader.
- It is managing up, brownnosing or ‘being political'.
- Once you are a leader you are no longer a follower.
- You have to be a good follower to be a good leader.
- Following is passive. It’s easy.
- About followership in the military: Meilinger, P. S. (2001), “The ten rules of good followership”, in Richard I. Lester and A. Glenn Morton (Eds.), AU-24 Concepts for Air Force Leadership, Air University Press, Maxwell AFB, AL, pp. 99–101.
- About followership in the nursing profession: A challenge to nursing: Promoting followers as well as leaders. DiRienzo, Sharon M. MSN, RNC Holistic Nursing Practice: October 1994
- Thody, Angela (2003). "Followership in Educational Organizations: A Pilot Mapping of the Territory". Leadership and Policy in Schools. 2 (2): 141–156. doi:10.1076/lpos.184.108.40.20642.
- About followership in the hospitality industry: Schindler, J. H. (2012). Followership as perceived by leaders in the hospitality industry (Order No. 3506342). Available from ABI/INFORM Global; Business Premium Collection; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1015169933). http://search.proquest.com/docview/1015169933
- Avolio, Bruce J.; Walumbwa, Fred O.; Weber, Todd J. (2009). "Leadership: Current Theories, Research, and Future Directions". Annual Review of Psychology. 60: 421–449. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163621.
- Cain, Susan (2017). "Not Leadership Material? Good. The World Needs Followers.", New York Times (Opinion), March 24, 2017.
- Chaleff, I. (2015). Intelligent disobedience: Doing right when what you are told to do is wrong. Oakland, CA: Barrett – Koehler Publishers Inc.
- Collins, J. (2001a). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap and others don't. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.
- Hamlin Jr, Allen (2016). "Embracing Followership: How to Thrive in a Leader-Centric Culture". Bellingham, WA: Kirkdale Press.
- Jackson, B., & Parry, K. (2011). A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership (2nd ed.). London, UK: SAGE Publications, Ltd.
- Kellerman, B. (2012). The end of leadership. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
- Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (2012). The leadership challenge (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- L. M. Lapierre, & M. K. Carsten (Eds.), Followership: What is it and why do people follow? (pp. 73–88). Bradford, GBR: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.
- R. Koonce, M. Bligh, M. K. Carsten, & M. Hurwitz (Eds.), Followership in action: Cases and commentaries. Bingley, England: Emerald Group Publishing.
- Morris (2014). "Constructions of Following from a Relational Perspective: A Follower-Focused Study". Journal of Leadership Education. 13 (4): 51–62. doi:10.12806/V13/I4/C7.
- Prilipko, E. (2014). "Leader-follower unity: A grounded theory based on perceptions of leadership and followership experts in the United States" (order no. 3621847). Dissertation, University of the Incarnate Word, School of Graduate Studies and Research.
- Read (2014). "Followership at the FDIC: A Case Study". Journal of Leadership Education. 13 (4): 136–145. doi:10.12806/V13/I4/C14.
- ^ abcdefghiUhl-Bien, M.; Riggio, R.; Lowe, K.; Carsten, M. (2014). "Followership theory: A review and research agenda". The Leadership Quarterly. 25: 83–104. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.11.007.
- ^Riggio, R. (2014). "Followership research: looking back and looking forward". Journal of Leadership Education. Special (4): 15–19. doi:10.12806/V13/I4/C4.
- ^Baker, S.D. (2007). "Followership: The theoretical foundation of a contemporary construct". Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. 14: 50–60. doi:10.1177/0002831207304343.
- ^ abKelley, R.E. (1988). "In praise of followers". Harvard Business Review. 66: 142–148.
- ^Koonce, R. (2016). All in “the family”: Leading and following through individual, relational, and collective mindsets. In R. Koonce, M. Bligh, M. K. Carsten, & M. Hurwitz (Eds). Followership in action: Cases and commentaries (pp. 3-13). Bingley, England: Emerald.
- ^Carsten, M.; Harms, P.; Uhl-Bien, M. (2014). "Exploring Historical Perspectives of Followership: The Need for an Expanded View of Followers and the Follower Role". In LaPierre, L.M.; Carsten, M.K. Followership: What is it and why do people follow?. Bradford, GBR: Emerald Group Publishing. pp. 3–25.
- ^Townsend, P. (2002). "Fitting teamwork into the grand scheme of things". The Journal for Quality and Participation. 25 (1): 16–18.
- ^Powell, C, (n.d.)
- ^Thomas, T.; Berg, P. (2014). "Followership: Exercising discretion". Journal of Leadership Education. Special (4): 21–35. doi:10.12806/V13/I4/C4.
- ^DiRienzo, S. (1994). "A challenge to nursing: Promoting followers as well as leaders". Holistic Nursing Practice. 9 (1): 26–30.
- ^Han, Ji-Young; Kim, Mi-Ye (2009). "The Impact of the Followership Style on the Organizational Effectiveness in Nursing Organization". Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration. 15 (2,): 233–243.
- ^Kouzes,, J.; Posner, B. (2012). The leadership challenge (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- ^Jackson, B.; Parry, K. (2011). A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership (2nd ed.). London, UK: SAGE Publications, Ltd.
- ^ abcHurwitz, M.; Hurwitz, S. (2015). Leadership is half the story: A fresh look at followership, leadership, and collaboration. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press 2015 Rotman-UTP Publishing.
- ^Hurwitz, M. (2017). "Followership: A Classroom Exercise to Introduce the Concept". Management Teaching Review: 237929811771746. doi:10.1177/2379298117717468.
- ^Kleiner, K. (2008). "Rethinking leadership and followership: A student's perspective". In Riggio, R.; Chaleff, I.; Lipman-Blumen, J. The art of followership: How great followers create great leaders and organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass – A Wiley Imprint. pp. 89–93.
- ^Owen, J (2016). Introducing Followership to Enhance the Booster Juice Franchisor/Franchise Partner Relationship. (Organizational Leadership Project) Royal Roads University. Victoria, Canada
- ^Bell, D. (2007). Followers' preferences for leaders behavioral characteristics: A case study of franchise restaurants. (Order No. 3274073). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304723103).
- ^Wildflower,L., & Brennan, D. (2011). The handbook of knowledge-based coaching: What we really do when we coach. Retrieved from http://catalogimages.wiley.com/images/db/jimages/9780470624449.jpg
- ^Whiteside, S. (2014). Impact of executive coaching on small businesses and franchisees. Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1501643317).
- ^ abDeale, Cynthia S.; Schoffstall, Donald G.; Brown, Eric A. (2016). "What does it mean to follow? An exploration of a followership profile in hospitality and tourism". Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism. 16 (4): 235–252. doi:10.1080/15313220.2016.1180964.
- ^ ab"Followership Learning Community (FLC)". www.ila-net.org. Retrieved 2017-07-25.
- ^Chaleff, I. (2009). The courageous follower (Google play books ed.). San Francisco, CA: Barrett – Koehler Publishers Inc.
- ^ abKellerman, B. (2008). Followership: How followers are creating change and changing leaders. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.
- ^Shamir, B. (2007). From passive recipients to active co-producers: Followers role in the leadership process. In B. Shamir, R. Pillai, M. C. Bligh, & M. Uhl-Bein (Eds.), Follower-centre perspectives on leadership: A tribute to Joseph Meindl (Google books edition ed., pp. xii – xviiii). Greenwich, Connecticut, USA: Information Age Publishing Inc.
- ^Coyne, K., & Coyne, E. J. (2007). Surviving your new CEO. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved June 10, 2017, from https://hbr.org/2007/05/surviving-your-new-ceo
- ^Collins, J. (2013). (with Cooley, M.). In Creative followership: In the shadow of greatness. Decatur, Georgia: Looking Glass Books, Inc.
- ^Ricketson, R.; Winner, W. D. (2016). "Corporate president as follower". In Koonce, R.; Bligh, M.; Carsten, M.; Hurwitz, M. Followership in action. UK: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. pp. 49–56.
- ^Howell, J., & Mendez, M. (2008). Three perspectives on followership. In R. Riggio, I. Chaleff, & J. Lipman-Blumen (Eds.), The art of followership: How great followers create great leaders and organizations (pp. 25–40). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- ^ abCain, S. (2017, March 24). Not leadership material? Good. The world needs more followers. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/24/opinion/sunday/not-leadership-material-good-the-world-needs-followers.html?_r=1
- ^ abKleiner, K. (2008). Rethinking leadership and followership: A student’s perspective. . In R. Riggio, I. Chaleff, & J. Lipman-Blumen (Eds.), The art of followership: How great followers create great leaders and organizations (pp. 89-93). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass – A Wiley Imprint
- ^ abcMaroosis, J. (2008). Leadership: A partnership in reciprocal following. In R. Riggio, I. Chaleff, & J. Lipman-Blumen (Eds.), The art of followership: How great followers create great leaders and organizations (pp. 17-24). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass – A Wiley Imprint
- ^ abLipman-Blumen (2014). "Foreward". Journal of Leadership Education. 13 (4). doi:10.12806/V13/I4/C1.
- ^Castoglione, B. (1959). The book of the courtier. (C. S. Singleton, Trans.) New York: Double Day, Anchor Books.
- ^Pascoe, Bruce (2016). "Followership and the Samurai". Journal of Leadership Studies. 10 (3): 54–57. doi:10.1002/jls.21494.
- ^Barclay, Laurie J. (2005). "Following in the footsteps of Mary Parker Follett". Management Decision. 43 (5): 740–760. doi:10.1108/00251740510597752.
- ^"Management Theory of Mary Parker Follett". business.com. Retrieved 2017-07-25.
- ^Baker, Susan D. (2016). "Followership". Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. 14: 50–60. doi:10.1177/0002831207304343.
- ^ abcdeHurwitz, Marc; Hurwitz, Samantha (2009). "The romance of the follower: Part 1". Industrial and Commercial Training. 41 (2): 80–86. doi:10.1108/00197850910939117.
- ^ abBennis, W. (2008). Introduction. In R. E. Riggio, I. Chaleff, & J. Lipman-Blumen (Eds.), The art of followership (pp. xxiii-xxvii). San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass A Wiley Imprint.
- ^Kelley, R. E. (1992). The power of followership: How to create leaders people want to follow and followers who lead themselves. New York, NY: Doubleday.
- ^Hollander, E., & Offerman, L. (1997). The balance of leadership and followership. No additional information available.
- ^Harris, K. J., Kacmar, K. M., and Carlson, D. S. (2006), “An examination of temporal variables and relationship quality on promotability ratings”, Group and Organization Management, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 677-699
- ^Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., and Bachrach, D. G. (2000), “Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research”, Journal of Management, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 513-563
- ^Thompson, J. A. (2006), “Proactive personality and job performance: A social capital perspective”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 90, No. 5, pp. 1011–1017.
- ^Gerstner, C. R. and Day, D. V. (1997), “Meta-analytic review of Leader-Member Exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 82, No. 6, 827-844
- ^Kelley, R. (2008). Rethinking Followership. In R. E. Riggio, I. Chaleff, & J. Lipman-Blumen (Eds.), The Art of Followership (pp. 5-15). San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass A Wiley Imprint.
- ^Chaleff, I. (2017). In praise of followership style assessment. Journal of Leadership Studies, 10(3), 45-48.
- ^Fairhurst, G. T., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2012). Organizational discourse analysis (ODA): Examining leadership as a relational process. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(6), 1043–1062
- ^Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader–member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219–247.
- ^Uhl-Bien, M., Graen, G. B., & Scandura, T. A. (2000). Implications of leader–member exchange (LMX) for strategic human resource management systems: Relationships as social capital for competitive advantage. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 18, 137–186.
- ^Psychology Today Staff (June 9, 2016). "In Praise of Followers: Many leaders start out as good followers". Psychology Today.
- ^Baker, S., Stites-Doe, S., Mathis, C., & Rosenbach, W. (2014). The fluid nature of follower and leader roles. In L. M. Lapierre, & M. K. Carsten (Eds.), Followership: What is it and why do people follow? (pp. 73-88). Bradford, GBR: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd
...Followership Sonia D. Smith Palm Beach State College Abstract Followership is important in order for a corporation to be successful. While the leader of an organization is an important role, a leader has to have followers to lead. This paper will look at what followership is defined as. It will also explore some of the demands on the effective follower and why effective followers are a critical resource for a leader. Followership One of the most important roles in an organization is followership. However, followership would not exist without trust and leadership. A leader is defined as one who “influences relationships among leaders and followers and who intend real changes and outcomes that reflect their shared purposes” (Daft, 2008). The two positions are entwined. Followers can shape a leaders behavior just like a leader can develop good followers. These roles are proactive and can work together to achieve the vision of the organization. In a time, not too long ago, followership meant to do as you were told and be quiet about it. Followers kept their heads down and did their job and did not ask questions. Recently, an employer’s expectations has changed for followers, and leaders are asking more from their subordinates than before. Everyone is or has been a follower at some time in their life. Even leaders have to have a followership role. For example, a supervisor on a production line has followers reporting to him/her. They in turn have to report to......
Words: 1354 - Pages: 6
...Monica•Liu Reading Summary Followership: The theoretical foundation of a contemporary construct by Susan D. Baker The author Susan D. Baker of the article Followership: The theoretical foundation of a contemporary construct introduces the theoretical foundation of followership and gives a result of why leadership rather than followership is emphasized. She proves the points of the article by the following aspects: identifying the antecedents from which followership theory developed, naming early followership theorists and researchers and discussing their work, and identifying the common themes in their work. This article provides the missing foundation in contemporary discussion of the followership construct, because the author found that there were 6 followership survey instruments have been used in approximately 20 published different field studies, and these studies need to be assessed for their effectiveness and dedications to the field of followership. The findings from that assessment could provide a common base of understanding that could inform future research. In the beginning part of the article, the author looks back across a century of followership theory and introduces the origins about followership, and mentions that there is so much emphasis on leadership but little on followership. The article states that “the Great Men had their followers, troops, or devotees who followed in their footsteps, obeyed their directives, and faithfully mimicked their...
Words: 738 - Pages: 3
...Discussion Board RE: Followership- Bystanders Definition: Followership can best be understood as having the willingness to follow a leader. Bystanders, according to Anita Satterlee’s book Organizational Management & Leadership are followers that, “observer from the sidelines and disengage from their leaders and their organizations. Bystanders may go along passively when it is in their self-interest to do so, but are not motivated to engage (p. 6).” Satterlee, A. 2013. Organizational Management & Leadership: A Christian Perspective. Raleigh, NC: Synergistics International INC. Summary: Jim Covel is the President of NAI (National Association for Interpretation and the senior manager of guest experience at Monterey, California’s, Monterey Bay Aquarium. In his article, “Leadership and “Followership”- We Can Learn a Lot from Sardines”, Covel uses his observation of sardines- “a school of 20,000 sardines”- to express the importance and often neglected concept of followership; “leaders and leadership are defined by the followers”, esteeming “followership as equally important to leadership.” In Covel’s article he is challenging the readers to understand that “leaders are only as effective as [their] followership allows”, stressing the fact that the “lack of good followership makes it much more difficult for good leaders to lead.” According to Covel there is a difference between sardines and human beings, and that is that sardines have a unique adaptation......
Words: 871 - Pages: 4
Evolution, Leadership and Followership
...Assignment Topic Two: Evolution, Leadership and Followership With the development of information technology, firms trend to decentralize power and empower employees. That means the companies are going from a top-down vertical pattern to a horizontal model. The evolutionary leadership theory (ELT) can explain well the phenomenon. Hundreds years ago, in China, the emperor concentrated all rights, for example, he can decide people’s life or death. Emperor was born, not made. Today, some companies’ leader is still like an emperor, they do not accept other people’s opinions when they make decisions. Particularly, after they succeed, they have a superiority complex and they think they are always right when they different opinions with others. Sometimes, I have the superiority complex because of more work experience. In my previous work, I am the leader of data team which is responsible for the maintenance on database. My team members are all newly hired, so they do not know much about our system, but they have high professional skills. Depend on the condition of my team members, I think they should follow my order for no reason. However, I made a mistake by the style of leadership. One day, one of my team member told me there is a code error in our system, I replied him immediately:” No, our system is perfect, it has been already operated trouble-free in two years.” After one month, our system crashed by the code error. From the study of the evolutionary leadership theory (ELT),......
Words: 349 - Pages: 2
Leadership and Followership
...INTRODUCTION [pic] There is no leader without at least one follower. Yet the modern leadership industry, now a quarter-century old, is built on the proposition that leaders matter a great deal and followers hardly at all. Good leadership is the stuff of countless courses, workshops, books, and articles. Everyone wants to understand just what makes leaders tick—the charismatic ones, the retiring ones, and even the crooked ones. Good followership, by contrast, is the stuff of nearly nothing. Most of the limited research and writing on subordinates has tended to either explain their behavior in the context of leaders’ development rather than followers’ or mistakenly assume that followers are amorphous, all one and the same. As a result, we hardly notice, for example, that followers who tag along mindlessly are altogether different from those who are deeply devoted. In reality, the distinctions among followers in groups and organizations are every bit as consequential as those among leaders. This is particularly true in business: In an era of flatter, networked organizations and cross-cutting teams of knowledge workers, it’s not always obvious who exactly is following (or, for that matter, who exactly is leading) and how they are going about it. Reporting relationships are shifting, and new talent-management tools and approaches are constantly emerging. A confluence of changes—cultural and technological ones in particular—have influenced what subordinates want and how......
Words: 3985 - Pages: 16
...MGMT20125 Leadership and Governance Term 1 - 2013 Profile information current as at 22-Mar-2013 16:04 Assessment Tasks WRITTEN ASSESSMENT Assessment Title Assessment item 1— Essay This assignment requires you to write an essay on why the leader’s role is critical to effective governance of organisations. Your essay topic should be informed by the extant literature on leadership and governance, especially literature which points to the need for organisations to develop forms of leadership and governance that operate effectively across shifting boundaries of the new economy. You are also required to examine literature highlighting the need for organisations to create ethical corporate culture (Caldwell et al 2008; Schwartz 2013) since ethical leadership influences group in-role performance (Walumbwa et al 2012). Finally, you will review the existing leadership research which proposes relationships between organisational leadership, leadership development, followership, organisational governance and organisational performance (Carcello 2009). Caldwell, C, Hayes, LA, Karri, R & Bernal, P 2008, ‘Ethical stewardship: implications for leadership and trust’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 78, pp. 153-164 (online EBSCOHOST). Carcello, JV 2009, 'Governance and the common good', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 89, pp. 11–18 (online EBSCOHOST). Schwartz, MS, 2013, ‘Developing and sustaining an ethical corporate culture: the core elements’, Business Horizons, vol.56,...
Words: 560 - Pages: 3
...Followership Miller, Lisa A. CNM, JD Section Editor(s): Miller, Lisa A. CNM, JD Author Information President, Perinatal Risk Management & Education Services Chicago, Ill For most of my career, I've been in leadership positions. Only 6 months after beginning my nursing career I was “promoted” to assistant head nurse, night shift. At the time, I was naïve enough to think it was my innate skill and ability, when the reality was more likely the fact that no one else wanted the job. I continued to serve in leadership or managerial positions when I became a nurse-midwife. Several years ago, after many years serving as a director of various nurse-midwifery services, I had the disconcerting but ultimately rewarding revelation that I was not a very good boss. Sure, I was good at negotiating the budget, and getting the midwives decent working conditions, but I was autocratic and aggressive, not very desirable characteristics of a leader. I decided to shift into teaching, something I enjoyed and did not require that I be “in charge” of anyone but myself. To keep clinically active, I took a per diem position as a nurse-midwife at a local hospital. It is a position which I still hold today and one that gives me great pleasure. And it is in part because my current boss is such a skilled leader, a leader that I am proud to follow, that I became interested in the concept of followership. | | It seems that a lot gets written about leadership in both business and healthcare.......
Words: 3707 - Pages: 15
...The Ten Rules of Good Followership Col Phillip S. Meilinger I have often come across articles written by great leaders–– generals, politicians, businessmen––that list the properties and attributes of good leadership. These lists are usually similar, noting the importance of intelligence, physical and moral courage, stamina, compassion, and so on. These characteristics are not only fairly general, but also seem to fall into the “great leaders are born, not made, category,” with the implication that if a person is not born with these charismatic qualities that make great leaders, it would be exceedingly difficult to acquire or develop them. How does one develop a sense of bravery, for example? How does one develop intelligence? Moreover, the entire subject of leadership principles always strikes me as a bit grandiose, because the authors are indeed great men or women who have performed great deeds. Although they provide useful advice for those very few who will someday command thousands of troops in battle or direct the operations of great organizations, what about the rest of us? It occurs to me that there is a subject more relevant to the men and women of all ranks who populate our Air Force: how does one become a good follower? This is a responsibility no less important than that of leadership––in fact it enables good leadership––yet it is often ignored. Moreover, it is likely that all of us will be followers more often than we will be leaders. For my part, I have had 23...
Words: 3355 - Pages: 14
Followership in Cases of Conflict of Interest
...| Followership in cases of conflict of interest. | By: Modupe Blessing Igbafen ABSTRACT An area is usually perceive as basic concerning the piece of followers in definitive ethics is aficionados' responses to dishonest requests by a leader (Carsten & Uhl-Bien, 2007). Followers face moral issues when leaders approach them with wrong requests, for instance, asking for that they take part in practices, which are doubtlessly beguiling. In such circumstances, supporters must settle on a decision: They can choose to stay up to the beguiling sales (e.g., by troublesome the pioneer's request, declining to join in exploitative direct or proposing alternative strategies) or they can oblige the pioneer's allure, largely getting the opportunity to be complicit with the untrustworthy behavior. This decision will apparently be connected with their emotions about follower’s relationship with pioneers, and their particular part. For followers to have the ability to stay up to a pioneer's exploitative sales, they ought not to see their followership part as reserved and obedient. Maybe, they must feel a commitment as a dynamic part in the administration process (Carsten & Uhl-Bien, 2007) INTRODUCTION. The idea of conflict of interest is more important today than any other time in recent memory. Moral sensitivities about the relationship in the middle of experts and those they serve are a wellspring of steady verbal confrontation. This book sets another standard for chip......
Words: 3498 - Pages: 14
...Leadership Success and Failure Failure is life’s greatest enabler. Each time I attempt and fail it gives me an opportunity to renew and reinvent myself. Failure is not a loss, it is always a lesson. Being able to preserver and apply new solutions is what makes a failure become a success. To be a successful leader I must always be held accountable for the outcome and be responsible for the lessoned learned, to be motivated to never give up. Once I am proactive about my decisions and actions, I will be able to trust my instincts that have embedded into my memory of past failures. Each time I experience a failure, my intuition sharpens. Failure empowers me to trust myself to be fearless in new experiences. The more times you fail the clearer opportunities become. “Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm.” Winston Churchill According to Forbes article, Five things Failure teaches about Leadership, “Failure is not fatal. It is a wake-up call for the next opportunity.” As a leader, I have to have the abundance mentality that there is plenty of opportunities. I find myself asking myself “If I only knew then what I know now.” Each opportunity allows for more wisdom. I will start to be able to see hidden opportunities that I could not see before. A successful leader will always have the enthusiasm to learn. Steve Jobs is an example of a successful leader. He was passionate about his journey and never gave up. Steve Jobs worked on his......
Words: 2501 - Pages: 11
...University of Florida Levin College of Law UF Law Scholarship Repository Faculty Publications Faculty Scholarship 2013 Leadership and Followership Robert H. Jerry II University of Florida Levin College of Law, email@example.com Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarship.law.ufl.edu/facultypub Recommended Citation Robert H. Jerry, II, Leadership and Followership, 44 U. Tol. L. Rev. 345 (2013), available at http://scholarship.law.ufl.edu/facultypub/ 366 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Faculty Scholarship at UF Law Scholarship Repository. It has been accepted for inclusion in Faculty Publications by an authorized administrator of UF Law Scholarship Repository. For more information, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. LEADERSHIP AND FOLLOWERSHIP Robert H. Jerry, II* "[B]etter followers beget better leaders." I been fond of a set of expressions HROUGH use to underscore the importance of an idea or a cause I sometimes the years, I have believe important and worthy of personal or institutional investment, or both. The expressions fit together like this: our society has a particular problem that needs attention; our colleges and universities, being institutions broadly representative of our society, also have this problem (as we should expect): we need to work on this problem in our colleges and universities; if we cannot solve this problem in our institutions of higher learning, then I have little...
Words: 5470 - Pages: 22
...Followership is a concept that is vital to the survival to any or all leadership theories. According to Oregon Universities Holden Leadership Center, both are dependent upon the interaction of the other: “Team efforts.. require active followers. Followers set the levels of acceptance for leadership. And in many ways, it is more important for leaders to understand followers than for followers to understand leaders.” The site gave various signs of what makes a follower, namely, cooperating towards a mission in groups, demonstrating teamwork, and building cohesion among the group. It is described as the building blocks to effective leadership. It then laments at the scarcity of research and the recurring taboo surrounding followership. It gives seven signs that exemplify effective followership within a group: volunteering, acceptance of assignments, exhibiting loyalty, voicing opinions (but supporting final decisions), offering suggestions, maintaining a positive attitude especially in “confusing or trying times,” and working effectively as a team member. To most, the signs explain themselves. I think that at its heart, it’s the refusal of selfish tendencies as a worker, which is also at the center of being a good leader—followers have difficulty following selfish and toxic leaders, just as they should hold themselves to that same standard. The article continues to give examples of things followers can do to build up and optimize their group. They should strive to......
Words: 354 - Pages: 2
...Transformational Leadership on Follower Development and Performance: A Field Experiment Author(s): Taly Dvir, Dov Eden, Bruce J. Avolio, Boas Shamir Source: The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 45, No. 4 (Aug., 2002), pp. 735-744 Published by: Academy of Management Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3069307 . Accessed: 13/10/2011 04:47 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. Academy of Management is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Academy of Management Journal. http://www.jstor.org c Academy of Management Journal 2002, Vol. 45, No. 4, 735-744. IMPACT OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP ON FOLLOWER DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE: A FIELD EXPERIMENT TALY DVIR DOV EDEN Tel Aviv University BRUCE J. AVOLIO University of Nebraska BOAS SHAMIR Hebrew University In a longitudinal, randomized field experiment, we tested the impact of transformational leadership, enhanced by training, on follower development and performance. Experimental group leaders received transformational......
Words: 6647 - Pages: 27
Leadership and Followership
...Leadership and followership Viewing follower as an imitator of the leader, followership often viewed as trait of a weak personality- which is not true. “Followers are more important to leaders than leaders are to followers.”- Barbara Kellerman. Leadership and followership are two distinct but interdependent concepts. The world viewing the leader as the power holder, mostly preaches everyone to be a leader. Everyone needs to be a leader and a follower too. Power is not centralized with the leader but it is shared with the follower. Any leader will grow as he knows his community more and a follower grows with the leader too. In a given organization a person either by promotion or by recruitment will start as a positional leader and the team members will follow him because of the positional authority he holds, the involvement of the follower is at the basic level. Once the leader starts to know his community by being an active listener, the followers will be liking him more and will choose to follow him. By building this relation followers will be willing to participate in goal setting. Following the leader’s policy followers will have a vision about the results they are going to achieve collectively which will take their involvement to the next level. Seeing the personal gain in the collective goal, a follower will connect to the leader at a personal level which will make them more active followers. As the leader and the followers grow together they can make a successful......
Words: 404 - Pages: 2
...* Leadership practices * The leader was capable to communicate effectually and frequently he was capable to form the trust between us. So fundamentally he had the skill to inspire me as well as the others in the direction of the accomplishment of goals * Danuka remained as good leader with high energy. He ensured that the whole thing is well premeditated, organized and established. * It was further a participative leadership style. He was not only planning and delegating but he was a part of everything. He showed some delegative style leadership in hard times. He was showed up as a transactional leader when it came to transactional leadership by Encouraging and assisting others in setting goals, Planning, Organizing, and Prioritizing Work, Concentrating my time on key priorities * Learning’s on followership * Having faith in the leader is more important when carrying out a job at the mean time if the task is unclear or the result is negative the follower should feel free to directly talk to the leader. * Communication is another vital part for followers, I communicated clearly with the leader and other followers which made my implementing part easy. * More precisely I also realized “Leaders make Followers and followers make leaders” and the cause to have a worthy followership is certainty and interdependence. * Followership practices * Looking at the followership, as followers we preserved an optimistic attitude and offered......
Words: 401 - Pages: 2